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# Longitude and Latitude of India – Definition and Difference

## Latitude and Longitude

Latitude and Longitude are commonly referred to as geographical coordinates as they provide a systematic network of lines upon which the position of various surface features of the earth can be represented. With the help of these coordinates, the location, distance, and direction of various points can be easily determined. Latitude and Longitude are measured in degrees (°) because they represent angular distances. Each degree is further divided into 60 minutes ( ‘ ) and each minute into 60 seconds ( “ ).

## What are Latitude and Longitude?

Latitude and longitude are two fundamental concepts in geography and cartography that help pinpoint any location on Earth’s surface. In India, longitude and latitude play an important role in navigating and mapping which offers precise about the location across the earth.  Here is the detailed information about Latitude and Longitude.

### Latitude:

• Latitude is defined as the angular distance of any point, north or south of the equator, i.e. it is a coordinate system, that is used as a reference point to locate places on earth.
• The Equator is an imaginary circular line drawn on the earth, which divides it into two equal parts, wherein the upper half is called the Northern Hemisphere, and the lower half is known as the Southern Hemisphere. The circular lines, parallel to the equator, and up to the North and South poles are the parallels of latitude.
• Latitude ranges from 0 to 90 degrees, with the equator indicating 0 degrees and the poles indicating 90 degrees. The Equator is the longest line of latitude. Parallels in the northern hemisphere are referred to as north latitudes, while those in the southern hemisphere are referred to as south latitudes. The following are some major latitudes:
1. Tropic of Cancer (23.5° N)
2. Tropic of Capricorn (23.5° S)
3. Arctic Circle (66.5° N)
4. Antarctic Circle (66.5° S)

### Longitude:

• Longitude is the angular distance of any point east or west of the Prime Meridian or west of the Standard Meridian. It determines how far a specific location is from the reference line. Meridians of longitude are reference lines that run from the north pole to the south pole. These are semicircles, and the distance between them decreases sharply as they approach the poles.
• All meridians are the same length and the Greenwich Meridian is used to count meridians. The prime meridian has a value of 0° longitude and divides the earth into two equal parts, the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

## Difference between Latitude and Longitude

The difference between Latitude and Longitude according to the direction and climate has been explained below.

• Zero Point: The Prime Meridian serves as the zero point for longitude, with lines extending east and west. The Equator serves as the zero point for latitude, with lines extending north and south.
• Effect on Climate: Latitude plays a significant role in determining climate zones, such as tropical, temperate, and polar regions. Longitude affects time zones, with each 15° longitude difference roughly one hour.
• Direction:  Longitude measures the distance east or west of the Prime Meridian and latitude measures the distance north or south of the Equator.

The difference between Latitude and Longitude is given in the table below:

BASIS FOR COMPARISON LATITUDE LONGITUDE
Meaning Latitude implies the geographic coordinate which determines the distance of a point, north-south of the equator. Longitude alludes to the geographic coordinate, which identifies the distance of a point, east-west of the Prime Meridian.
Direction East to west North to south
Stretches from 0 to 90° 0 to 180°
Lines of reference Known as parallels Known as meridians
Number of lines 180 360
Length of lines Different Same
Parallel Yes, the lines are parallel. No, the lines are not parallel.
Classifies Heat Zones Time Zones

## Latitude and Longitude of India

India is a vast country. Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere the mainland extends between latitudes 8°4’N and 37°6’N and longitudes 68°7’E and 97°25’E. The Indian Government has accep­ted the meridian of 82.5° east for the standard time which is 5 hours 30 mins, ahead of Greenwich Mean Time. In India, longitude lines help determine the country’s position relative to the Prime Meridian. By understanding these geographic coordinates, one can precisely identify the position of cities, landmarks, and natural features, facilitating various activities such as travel, urban planning, and disaster management.

## FAQs

### What do you mean by Latitudes and Longitudes?

Latitudes and Longitudes are imaginary lines used to determine the location of a place on earth.

### What do you mean by Parallels of Latitude?

The parallels of latitude refer to the angular distance, in degrees, minutes and seconds of a point north or south of the Equator. Lines of latitude are often referred to as parallels.

### How are latitudes and longitudes measured?

Latitudes and longitudes are measured in degrees (°) because they represent angular distances. Each degree is further divided into 60 minutes ( ‘ ) and each minute into 60 seconds ( “ ).