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Mughal Empire – Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details

Mughal Empire

The Mughal dynasty is an iconic chapter in the history of India, celebrated for its grandeur, cultural amalgamation, and profound influence on the Indian subcontinent. It was a Muslim Dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin that ruled most part of the northern India from the early 16th to the mid-19th century. The Mughal dynasty was founded by Babur (who ruled from 1526-1530). He was a Chagatai Turk prince and a descendant of the Ottoman conquerors Timur (Tamerlane) on his father’s side and Genghis Khan on his mother’s side. Let us now learn about the Mughal Empire in detail below.

Mughal Empire: Key Details

In almost every competitive exam where History is asked in the General Awareness section, The Mughal Empire is one of the most asked and repeated topics. So it becomes necessary for the candidates preparing for such exams to have a basic idea regarding the same. The key details of the Mughal Dynasty including the time period, language, religion, capital, etc. are tabulated below.

Name Mughal Dynasty Or Mughal Empire
Period 1526- 1857 AD.
Common Language Persian (Official and court language), Urdu (later given official status), Chagatai (spoken in the initial years), Arabic (for religious ceremonies) and other Indian languages
Religion Sunni Islam (Hanafi) (1526-1857), Din-i Ilahi (1582-1605)
  • Agra (1526-1530; 1560-1571; 1598-1648)
  • Fatehpur Sikri (1571-1585)
  • Lahore (May 1586-1598)
  • Shahjahanabad, Delhi (1530-1540; 1554-1556;1639-1857)
Government Unitary absolute monarchy under a federal structure

  • Centralized autocracy (1526-1719)
  • Oligarchic constitutional monarchy (1719-1857)
Currency Rupee, Taka and Dam

Rulers of the Mughal Dynasty

There were many rulers in the Mughal Dynasty, each different from the other. Going through the attributes of the important Mughal Rulers will provide the readers an idea of the empire as a whole. Check out the table below to learn about the succession of rulers in the Mughal dynasty, spanning from Babur’s reign in the 16th century to Bahadur Shah II’s rule in the mid-1800s.

Emperor Reign
Babur 1526–1530
Humayun 1530–1540
Suri Dynasty 1540-1555
Humayun 1555–1556
Akbar 1556–1605
Jahangir 1605–1627
Shah Jahan 1627–1658
Aurangzeb 1658–1707
Bahadur Shah I (also known as Muazzam/Shah Alam) 1707–1712
Jahandar Shah 1712–1713
Furrukhsiyar 1713–1719
Rafi UL-Darjat 1719
Rafi Ud-Daulat 1719
Nikusiyar 1719
Muhammad Ibrahim 1720
Muhammad Shah (also called Rangeela) 1719–1720; 1720–1748
Ahmad Shah Bahadur 1748–54
Alamgir II 1754–1759
Shah Jahan III 1759
Shah Alam II 1759–1806
Akbar Shah II 1806–1837
Bahadur ShahII 1837–1857

List Of Mughal Emperors

The Mughal Dynasty was established by Babur and the last ruler of the dynasty was Bahadur Shah Zafar II. The power after the Mughal Empire was transferred to the hands of the British. Here we provide you a complete list of Mughal Emperors, which is very helpful in making notes for your exam preparation.

Portrait Titular Name Birth Name Birth Reign Death
Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_3.1 Babur Zahir al-Din Muhammad 14 February 1483 Andijan, Uzbekistan 20 April 1526 – 26 December 1530 26 December 1530 (aged 47) Agra, India
Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_4.1 Humayun


Nasir al-Din Muhammad 6 March 1508 Kabul, Afghanistan 26 December 1530  – 17 May 154022 February 1555 – 27 January 1556

(10 years 3 months 25 days)

27 January 1556 (aged 47) Delhi, India
Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_5.1 Akbar the Great Jalal al-Din Muhammad 15 October 1542 Umerkot, Pakistan 11 February 1556 – 27 October 1605(49 years 9 months 0 days) 27 October 1605 (aged 63) Agra, India
Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_6.1 Jahangir Nur al-Din Muhammad 31 August 1569 Agra, India 3 November 1605 – 28 October 1627(21 years 11 months 23 days) 28 October 1627 (aged 58) Jammu and Kashmir, India
Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_7.1 Shah Jahah Shihab al-Din Muhammad 5 January 1592 Lahore, Pakistan 19 January 1628 – 31 July 1658(30 years 8 months 25 days) 22 January 1666 (aged 74) Agra, India
Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_8.1 Aurangzeb Alamgir Muhi al-Din Muhammad 3 November 1618 Gujarat, India 31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707(48 years 7 months 0 days) 3 March 1707 (aged 88) Ahmednagar, India
Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_9.1 Azam Shah Qutb al-Din Muhammad 28 June 1653 Burhanpur, India 14 March 1707 – 20 June 1707 20 June 1707 (aged 53) Agra, India
Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_10.1 Bahadur Shah Qutb al-Din Muhamma 14 October 1643 Burhanpur, India 19 June 1707 – 27 February 1712(4 years, 253 days) 27 February 1712 (aged 68) Lahore, Pakistan
Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_11.1 Jahandar Shah Muiz al-Din Muhammad 9 May 1661 Deccan, India 27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713(0 years, 350 days) 12 February 1713 (aged 51) Delhi, India
10Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_12.1 Farrukh Siyar Muin al-Din Muhammad
Puppet King under the Sayyids of Barha
20 August 1685 Aurangabad, India 11 January 1713 – 28 February 1719(6 years, 48 days) 19 April 1719 (aged 33) Delhi, India
11Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_13.1 Rafi ud-Darajat


Shams al-Din Muhammad
Puppet King under the Sayyids of Barha
1 December 1699 28 February 1719 – 6 June 1719(0 years, 98 days) 6 June 1719 (aged 19) Agra, India
12Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_14.1 Shah Jahan II Rafi al-Din Muhammad Puppet King under the Sayyids of Barha 5 January 1696 6 June 1719 – 17 September 1719(0 years, 105 days) 18 September 1719 (aged 23) Agra, India
13Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_15.1 Muhammad Shah Nasir al-Din Muhammad Puppet King under the Sayyids of Barha 7 August 1702 Ghazni, Afghanistan 27 September 1719 – 26 April 1748(28 years, 212 days) 26 April 1748 (aged 45) Delhi, India
14Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_16.1 Ahmad Shah Bahadur


Mujahid al-Din Muhammad 23 December 1725 Delhi, India 29 April 1748 – 2 June 1754(6 years, 37 days) 1 January 1775 (aged 49) Delhi, India
15Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_17.1 Alamgir II


Aziz al-Din Muhammad 6 June 1699 Burhanpur, India 3 June 1754 – 29 November 1759(5 years, 180 days) 29 November 1759 (aged 60) Kotla Fateh Shah, India
16Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_18.1 Shah Jahan III


Muhi al-Millat 1711 10 December 1759 – 10 October 1760(282 days) 1772 (aged 60–61)
17Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_19.1 Shah Alam II Jalal al-Din Muhammad Ali Gauhar 25 June 1728 Delhi, India 10 October 1760 – 31 July 1788(27 years, 301 days) 19 November 1806 (aged 78) Delhi, India
18Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_20.1 Shah Jahan IV Bidar Bakht Mahmud Shah Bahadur Jahan Shah 1749 Delhi, India 31 July 1788 – 11 October 1788(63 days) 1790 (aged 40–41) Delhi, India
17Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_19.1 Shah Alam II Jalal al-Din Muhammad Ali Gauhar, Puppet King under the Maratha Empire 25 June 1728 Delhi, India 16 October 1788 – 19 November 1806(18 years, 339 days) 19 November 1806 (aged 78) Delhi, India
19Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_22.1 Akbar Shah II Muin al-Din Muhammad, Puppet King under the East India Company 22 April 1760 Mukundpur, India 19 November 1806 – 28 September 1837(30 years, 321 days) 28 September 1837 (aged 77) Delhi, India
20Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_23.1 Bahadur Shah II Zafar Abu Zafar Siraj al-Din Muhammad 24 October 1775 Delhi, India 28 September 1837 – 21 September 1857(19 years, 360 days) 7 November 1862 (aged 87) Rangoon, Myanmar

Babur (1526–1530)

  • Babur was born in 1483 in Fargana(Afganistan).
  • He was the founder of the Mughal Empire, who introduced gunpowder in India.
  • Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat (AD 1526)
  • Defeated Rana Sanga (Sangram Singh) at the Battle of Khanwa (AD 1527)
  • Defeated Medini Rai of Chanderi at the Battle of Chanderi (AD 1528)
  • Defeated Mahmud Lodi at the Battle of Ghagra (AD 1529). This was the last Battle fought by Babur.
  • He wrote Tuzuk-i-Baburi (Autobiography of Babur) in the Turkish language.
  • Babur declared Jehad and adopted the title, Ghazi(After the Khanva War)
  • According to  Tuzuk-i-Baburi, Babur Died in 1530 in Lahore and was buried at Aram Bagh (Agra). Later his body was taken to Afghanistan (Kabul).

Humayun (AD 1530-1556)

  • Humayun was born on March 6, 1508, in Kabul, Afghanistan.
  • Humayun was the eldest son of Babur. He ascended to the throne of the Mughal Empire in 1530 after the death of his father.
  • Built Dinpanah in Delhi as his second capital.
  • Sher Shah Suri gradually gained power. He fought two battles with Humayun – The battle of Chausa (AD 1539) and another Battle of Kannauj (AD 1540) culminating in Humayun’s defeat.
  • Humayun spent 15 years in exile. He again invaded India in 1555 with the help of his officer Bairam Khan.
  • Humayun died in AD 1556 due to a fall from his library building’s stairs.
  • Gulbadan Begum, Humayun’s half-sister wrote Humayun-Nama.

Humayun (Tomb’s Delhi) Biography, Second Mughal Empire

Akbar (AD 1556-1605)

  • Abu’l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar popularly known as Akbar succeeded Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India.
  • Considered to be one of the greatest rulers of all time.
  • Defeated Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat (AD 1556) with the help of Bairam Khan
  • Conquered Malwa (AD 1561) defeating Baz Bahadur followed by Garh-Katanga (ruled by Rani Durgawati), Chittor (AD 1568), Ranthambhor, and Kalinjar (AD 1569), Gujarat (AD 1572), Mewar (Battle of Haldighati, AD 1576 Akbar and Rana Pratap), Kashmir (AD 1586), Sindh (AD 1593) and Asirgarh (AD 1603).
  • Buland Darwaza was constructed at Fatehpur Sikri after its victory over Gujarat in AD 1572.
  • Akbar married Harka Bai (also known as Jodha Bai), the daughter of Rajput ruler Bharmal.
  • Akbar abolished Jaziyah (AD 1564).
  • He believed in Sulh-i-Kul (peace to all), built Ibadat Khana (Hall of prayer) at Fatehpur Sikri; issued ‘Degree of Infallibility (AD 1579); formulated religious order Din-i-Ilahi (AD 1582). Birbal was the first to embrace it.
  • The land revenue system was called the Todar Mal Bandobast or Zabti System measurement of land, classification of land, and fixation of rent; and introduced the Mansabdari System (holder of rank) to organize nobility and army.
  • The Navratnas included Todar Mal, Abul Fazal, Faizi, Birbal, Tansen, Abdur Rahim Khana-i-Khana, Mullah-do-Pyaza, Raja Man Singh and Fakir Aziao-Din.
  • Akbar died on 27 October 1605 due to dysentery. His body was buried at his mausoleum in Sikandra, Agra.

Jahangir (AD 1605-1627)

  • During Jahangir’s rule, the British East India Company was granted trading rights in India.
  • Executed the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjun Dev.
  • His greatest failure was the loss of Kandahar to Persia in AD 1622.
  • Jahangir married Mehr-un-Nisa in AD 1611 and conferred the title of Nurjahan on her.
  • He established Zanjir-i-Adal at Agra Fort for the seekers of royal justice.
  • Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe visited his court.
  • In the later years of his rule, Jahangir’s health declined, and his son Khurram (Shah Jahan) effectively took over the administration.
  • Jahangir passed away on October 28, 1627, in Rajauri, while on his way to Kashmir.

Shahjahan (AD 1628-1658)

  • Shahjahan had an insatiable passion for building
  • Under his rule, the Taj Mahal of Agra and the Jama Masjid of Delhi, among other monuments, were erected.
  • His reign marked the cultural zenith of Mughal rule.
  • His military expeditions brought the empire to the brink of bankruptcy.
  • His sons commanded large armies on different fronts.
  • During his reign, the Marwari horse was introduced.
  • The Taj Mahal, the eternal love monument is located in Agra. Shah Jahan commissioned its construction as a mausoleum for his favorite wife, Arjumancl Bano Begum, better known as Mumtaz Mahal, in 1631.
  • A rebellion of the Sikhs led by Guru Hargobind took place. Shah Jahan ordered the destruction of the Sikh temple in Lahore.

Aurangzeb (Alamgir) (AD 1658-1707)

  • Aurangzeb was the son of Mumtaz and Shahjahan.
  • Aurangzeb became victorious after the brutal war of succession between his brothers Dara, Shuja, and Murad.
  • Rebellions during his rule – Jat Peasantry at Mathura, Satnami peasantry in Punjab, and Bundelas in Bundelkhand.
  • The annexation of Marwar in AD 1658 led to a serious rift between the Rajput and Mughals after the death of Raja Jaswant Singh.
  • The ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed by him in AD 1675.
  • Mughal conquests reached a territorial climax during his reign.
  • It stretched from Kashmir in the North to Jinji in the South, from the Hindukush in the West to Chittagong in the East.
  • He was called Darvesh or Zinda Pir. He forbade Sati. Conquered Bijapur (AD 1686) and Golconda (AD 1687) and reimposed Jaziya in AD 1679.
  • He built Biwi ka Makbara on the tomb of his queen Rabaud-Durrani at Aurangabad; Moti Masjid within Red Fort, Delhi; and the Jami or Badshahi Mosque at Lahore.
  • Aurangzeb died in 1707 in Ahmednagar.

Other Mughal Rulers

After the death of Aurangzeb, there was a clear decline in the Mughal’s command over the empire. However, there were some rulers who tried to restore the glory of the empire. Some historians have called this period the time of the ‘Later Mughals’. Let us have a look at the next stage of the Mughal Empire

Bahadur Shah I (1707-12) 

  • The original name was Muazzam
  • Title, Shah-e-Bekhabar.
  • Promote a friendly relationship with Marathas and Rajputs

Jahandar Shah (1712-13) 

  • He ascended the throne with the help of Zulfikar Khan (Wazir).
  • Abolished Jijiya.
  • A Prostitute “LAL KUAR” dominated his court

Farrukhsiyar (1713-19) 

  • He lacked the ability and knowledge to rule independently.
  • His reign saw the emergence of the Sayyid Brothers (known as kingmakers).
  • Abdulla Khan-Wazir
  • Hussain Ali-Senapati
  • 1717-Issued Golden Farman to East India Company for free trade
  • Farrukhsiyar executed Banda Bahadur ( A Sikh leader)

Muhammad Shah (1719-48) 

  • Became the emperor with the help of the Saiyad Brothers
  • Nadir Shah invaded India and took away the Peacock throne and Kohinoor diamond.
  • Title- Rangeela
  • The emergence of the independent state in his period

Ahmed Shah (1748-54) 

  • Ahmed Shah Abdali (General of Nadir Shah) marched towards Delhi and the Mughals ceded Punjab and Multan.
  • He worked under the guidance of Rajmata  “Udam Bai”

Alamgir (1754-59) 

  • Ahmed Shah occupied Delhi Later, Delhi was plundered by Marathas.

Shah Alam II (1759-1806) 

  • Original NAME: Aligohar
  • Panipat War: (1761)
  • Buxar War (1764)
  • Treaty of Allahabad (1765)
  • Could not enter Delhi for 12 years.
  • 1788: Gulam Kadir make him blind

Akbar II (1806-37)

  • Pensioner of East India Company.
  • Gave the title “Raja” to Ram Mohan Roy

Bahadur Shah II (1837-57) 

  • Nickname: Jafar
  • The last Mughal Emperor was made premier during the 1857 Revolt.
  • 1862-death in Rangoon (Myanmar)

Fall of the Mughal Empire

Historians have offered numerous explanations for the rapid collapse of the Mughal Empire. Emperors lost authority and control of the empire, as the widely scattered imperial officers lost confidence in the central authorities, and made their deals with local men of influence. The successors were weak and incompetent. Another reason is the multiple wars that were fought in quick succession. Due to this Marathas and other regional powers started to grow and made it difficult for the Mughals to control their empire. The decline of the Mughal Empire led to a decline in agricultural productivity, which drove up food prices.

Mughal Empire – Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details PDF

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Mughal Empire, Rulers, Fall of Empire and Complete Details_24.1


Who was the founder of Mughal dynasty?

Babur was the founder of Mughal dynasty.

Who consolidated the Mughal empire and gave it a unique multi-religious culture?

Akbar consolidated the Mughal empire and gave it a unique multi-religious culture.

Who was the Mughal emperor when Nadir Shah attacked Delhi?

Muhammad Shah was the Mughal emperor when Nadir Shah attacked Delhi

Who initiated Din-I-Ilahi?

Akbar initiated Din-I-Ilahi.

Who among the following was regarded as Zinda Pir?

Aurangzeb was regarded as Zinda Pir.


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