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Delhi Sultanate, Dynasties Who Ruled Over Delhi Sultanate

Delhi Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic Empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially:- the Mamluk dynasty (1206–1290), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), and the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).

In this article, we are providing a detailed insight into the Delhi Sultanate including all the related information about the Mamluk dynasty, Khalji dynasty, Tughlaq dynasty, Sayyid dynasty, and Lodhi Dynasty.

The Mamluk Dynasty

In 1206 Qutubuddin Aibak made India free of Ghazni’s control. Rulers who ruled over India and conquered new territories during the period 1206-1290 AD. are known as belonging to the Mamluk Dynasty as known as the Slave dynasty. The below table contains the Ruler’s name, their period, and the events the rulers.

Ruler Period
Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206–1210)
Aram Shah (1210–1211)
Shams-ud-din Iltutmish (1211–1236)
Ruknuddin Feruz Shah (1236)
Razia Sultana (1236–1240)
Muizuddin Bahram (1240–1242)
Alauddin Masud (1242–1246)
Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246–1266)
Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1266–1286)
Muiz ud din Kaiqubad (1287–1290)
Kaimur 1290

Here we have provided detailed information about the rulers which will help the candidates to prepare according to the exam.

Qutubuddin Aibak

He came from the region of Turkistan and he was a slave of Mohammad Ghori. He ruled as a Sultan from 1206 to 1210. While playing Polo, he fell from the horse and died in 1210.

Aram Shah

After Aibak’s death, his son Aram Shah was enthroned at Lahore. In the conflict between Iltutmish and Aram Shah, Iltutmish was victorious.


He was a slave of Aibak. He belonged to the Ilbari Turk clan of Turkistan. In 1211 Iltutmish occupied the throne of Delhi after killing Aram Shah and successfully ruled up to 1236.

Construction of Qutub Minar

Iltutmish completed the unfinished construction of Qutub Minar, which was started by Qutubuddin Aibak. He built the Dhai Din ka Jhopra at Ajmer.

Razia Sultan

She was the first lady Sultan who ruled for three years, six months, and six days. From 1236 to 1240. She appointed Jamaluddin Yakut as the highest officer of cavalry. In 1240, the feudal lord (Subedar) of Bhatinda, Ikhtiyaruddin nobles imprisoned Razia and killed Yakut. To counter her enemies Razia married Altunia and once again attempted to regain power. On 13th October 1240, near Kaithal when Razia and Altunia were resting under a tree, some dacoits killed them.


Set on the throne of Delhi in 1266 and he adopted the name of Ghiyasuddin Balban. For the defense from Mongols Balban reorganized the Military department – known as Diwan – i – Ariz.

The Khalji dynasty

The Khalji Dynasty was the second ruler after the Slave Dynasty.

Rulers Period
Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji 1290–1296
Alauddin Khilji 1296–1316
Shihabuddin Omar 1316
Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah 1316–1320
Khusrau Khan 1320`

The Story Of Alauddin Khilji

Jalaluddin Feroz Khalji

He was the founder of this dynasty. He became ruler in 1290.

Alauddin Khalji

Alauddin extended the boundaries of his empire and reorganized his administration. He adopted the title of Yasni – ul – Khalifat – Nasiri – Amir al Mu’minin and crushed the uprisings in his dominion.

Conquest of Chittor

In January 1303 Alauddin invaded Chittor and after 7 months, he captured it. Rani Padmini and others committed Jauhar.

The Tughlaq Dynasty

The Tughlaq dynasty lasted from 1320 to nearly the end of the 14th century. The first ruler Ghazi Malik renamed himself Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq and is also referred to in scholarly works as Tughlak Shah.

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq

His name was Ghazi Malik or Ghazi Beg Tuglaq. After defeating Khusrau khan he ascended the throne of Delhi in 1320. He became the founder of the new dynasty known as the Tughlaq dynasty. He ruled up to 1325.

Tughlaq Shah

He sat on the throne with the title of Ghyasuddin II in 1388. But he ruled for only 5 months. Abu Bakr was made the king of Delhi.

Rulers Period
Ghiyath al-Din (Ghiyasuddin) Tughluq 1320–1325
Muhammad bin Tughluq 1325–1351
Mahmud Ibn Muhammad 1351 (March)
Firoz Shah Tughlaq 1351–1388
Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq II 1388–1389
Abu Bakr Shah 1389–1390
Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III 1390–1393
Ala ud-din Sikandar Shah I 1393
Mahmud Nasir ud din 1393–1394
Nasir-ud-din Nusrat Shah Tughluq 1394–1399
Nasir ud din Mahmud 1399–1412

Tughlaq Dynasty: Rulers And Policies Of the Tughlaq Dynasty

The Sayyid Dynasty

The Sayyid dynasty ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1415 to 1451. Khizr Khan was the first ruler of the Sayyid dynasty. In 141 Khizr Khan captured Delhi. He ruled Delhi up to 1421. His son Mubarak Khan ascended the throne of Delhi in 1421 after his father’s death and adopted the title of Mubarak Shah. He ruled for over 13 years from 1421 to 1434. His time was spent struggling against foreign enemies and internal conspirators.

Rulers Period
Khizr Khan 1414–1421
Mubarak Shah 1421–1433
Muhammad Shah 1434–1445
Alam Shah 1445–1451

The Lodi Dynasty

The Lodi dynasty belonged to the Pashtun (Afghan) Lodi tribe. Bahlul Khan Lodi started the Lodi dynasty and was the first Pashtun, to rule the Delhi Sultanate. Sikander Lodi was the most prominent ruler of the Lodi Dynasty and also the founder of Agra City.

Rulers Period
Bahlul/Bahlol Lodi 1451–1489
Sikander Lodi 1489–1517
Ibrahim Lodi 1517–1526

Delhi Sultanate: FAQ

Q. Who was Qutubuddin Aibak?

Ans: Qutubuddin Aibak was the slave of Mohammad Ghori and ruled as a Sultan from 1206 to 1210.

Q. How many dynasties are there in Delhi Sultanate?

Ans: There are 5 dynasties i.e.Slave Dynasty, Khalji Dynasty, Tughlaq Dynasty, Sayyid Dynasty, and Lodi Dynasty.

Q. Who was the founder of the Khalji Dynasty?

Ans: Jalaluddin Feroz Khalji was the founder of this dynasty. He became ruler in 1290.

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