Tughlaq Dynasty: The Tughlaq dynasty was a Turkic Muslim dynasty that ruled over much of northern India from 1320 to 1414 AD. The dynasty was founded by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, who was a skilled military leader and administrator.
The Tughlaqs were able to maintain their rule for over a century due to a number of factors, including their strong military, their alliances with other powerful groups, and their religious legitimacy. However, the dynasty was also marked by a number of challenges, including economic instability, rebellions, and internal conflicts.
One of the most notable aspects of the Tughlaq dynasty was its ambition. The Tughlaqs sought to create a vast and powerful empire, and they implemented a number of ambitious policies in pursuit of this goal. For example, Muhammad bin Tughlaq, one of the most famous Tughlaq rulers, attempted to shift the capital of the empire from Delhi to Daulatabad in the Deccan. This ambitious project was ultimately unsuccessful, and it contributed to the decline of the dynasty.
The Tughlaq dynasty was a complex and fascinating period in Indian history. The dynasty was marked by both successes and failures, and it left a lasting legacy on the subcontinent.
Founder of Tughlaq Dynasty
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty. Tughluq’s policy was harsh against the Mongols. He had killed envoys of the Ilkhan Oljeitu and punished Mongol prisoners harshly. He also started the construction of the Tughlaqabad Fort.
About Tughlaq Dynasty
1320 AD- 1412 AD
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah I, Muhammad Shah II , Mahmud Ibn Muhammad , Firuz Shah Tughluq, Ghiyas ud din Tughluq II , Abu Baker, Nasiruddin Muhammad Shah III , Sikander Shah I
Tughlaq Dynasty Rulers
|Muhammad Tughlaq||1324-51 AD|
|Firoz Shah Tughlaq||1351-88 AD|
|Mohammad Khan||1388 AD|
|Ghiyassuddin Tughlaq Shah II||1388 AD|
|Abu Baqr||1389-90 AD|
|Nasiruddin Muhammad||1390-94 AD|
|Nasiruddin Mahmud||1395-1412 AD|
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Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq 1320-24 AD
- Ghazni Malik the last king of the Khilji dynasty, Khusrau Khan assumed the title Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
- He founded the city of Tughlaqabad.
- Khusrau Khan, the last king of the Khilji dynasty was killed by Ghazni Malik, and Ghazni Malik ascended the throne assuming the title GhiyasuddinTughlaq.
- He died in an accident and his soneJauna (Ulugh Khan) succeeded him under the title Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq.
- Reintroduced the food laws of Ala-ud-Din
- Suppressed the rebellions in the distant provinces with a strong hand and resorted the peace and order
- Organized a better postal system
- Encouraged agriculture
Mohammad-bin Tughlaq (1325-1351 AD)
- Taxation in the Doab: The Sultan made an ill-advised financial experiment in the Doab between the Ganges and Jamuna. He not only increased the rate of taxation but also revived and created some additional Abwabs or cesses. Although the share of the state remained half as in the time of Alauddin, it was fixed arbitrarily and not on the basis of actual produce.
- Transfer of Capital (1327): It appears that the Sultan wanted to make Deogir second capital so that he might be able to control south India better. Deogir was named Daulatabad. However, after a couple of years, Muhammad Tughlaq decided to abandon Daulatabad largely because he soon found that just as he could not control south India from Delhi, he could not control North from Daulatabad.
- Introduction of Token Currency (1330): Muhammad Tughlaq decided to introduce bronze coins, which were to have the same value as the silver coins. Muhammad Tughlaq might have been successful if he could prevent people from forging the new coins. He was not able to do so and so on the new coins began to be greatly devalued in markets.
- Transfer of the capital from Daultabad, earlier known as Devagiri.
- Introduction of token copper currency to replace gold and silver coins.
- Unsuccessful expedition to subjugate Quarajal-the region identified as the modern Kulu in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh.
- Futile plan to conquer Khurasan and Iraq.
- Creation of Diwan-i-Kohi
- Independence of dinar (a gold coin) and all(a silver coin).
- Establishment of the city of Jahanpanah.
- The arrival of an envoy from the Chinese ruler, ToghanTimur(1341)
- The famous Moroccan traveler Ibn Batuta visited India during his reign.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq(1351-1388 AD)
- He was a cousin of Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq. After his death, the nobles and the theologians of the court selected Firoz Shah as the next Sultan.
- Established of Diwan-i-Khairat (department for poor and needy people) and Diwan-l-Bundagan (department of slaves)
- Making the Iqtadari system hereditary.
- Construction of canals for irrigation from
- The Yamuna to the city of Hissar
- From the Sutlej to the Ghaggar
- From the Ghaggar to Firuzabad
- From Mandvi and Sirmour Hills to Hansi in Haryana.
- Establishment of four new towns, Firuzabad, Fatebabad, Jaunpur, and Hissar.
- He rebuilt two stories of Qutub Minar which were damaged by lightning in 1368 AD.
Post Firoz Shah Tughlaq
- The Tughlaq dynasty would not survive much after Firoz Shah’s death. The Malwa, Gujarat, and Sharqi (Jaunpur) Kingdoms broke away from the Sultanate.
- Timur Invasion: (1398-99) Timur, a Turk, invaded India in 1398 during the reign of Nasir-ud-din Mohammed Tughlaq, the last ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty. His army mercilessly sacked and plundered Delhi. Timur returned to Central Asia, leaving a nominee to rule Punjab which ended the Tughlaq dynasty.