Latest SSC jobs   »   GK Questions   »   Oxidation and Reduction

Oxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations and Examples

Oxidation and Reduction

Oxidation and Reduction can be dfined as a chemical reaction that takes place between an oxidizing substance and a reducing substance. The oxidizing substance loses electrons in the reaction, whereas the reducing substance gains electrons. For example, rust is formed when there is an oxidation-reduction reaction between oxygen contained in water or moist air (an oxidizing substance) and iron (a reducing substance). Oxidation-reduction reactions also occur when glucose (a type of sugar) and fat are broken down in our body to make energy. This is also called redox.

Oxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_50.1

Oxidation and Reduction Definition

Oxidation: Oxidation is a chemical reaction that takes place when a substance comes into contact with oxygen or another oxidizing substance. In this process, an atom, molecule, or an ion loses one or more number of electrons in a chemical reaction. During oxidation, the state of the chemical species increases. Oxidation does not necessarily have to involve oxygen.  Examples of oxidation: rust and the brown color on a cut apple.

Reduction: Reduction is the reverseof oxidation. This is a chemical reaction which involves the addition of hydrogen or any electropositive element or the removal of oxygen or any electronegative element. During reduction, the state of the chemical species decreases. Reduction does not necessarily have to involve hydrogen. Example: Copper ion undergoes reduction by gaining electrons to form copper.

Oxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_60.1

Oxidation and Reduction Reaction Examples

Let’s have a look at some of the Oxidation and Reduction Reaction Examples given below.

1. Reaction Between Hydrogen and Fluorine

In the hydrogen and fluorine reaction, the hydrogen is oxidized, whereas the fluorine is reduced. The reaction can be written as:

H2 + F2 → 2HF

  • The oxidation half-reaction is: H2 → 2H+ + 2e
  • The reduction half-reaction is: F2 + 2e → 2F

The hydrogen and fluorine ions go on to combine in order to form hydrogen fluoride.

2. Reaction Between Zinc and Copper

This is a metal displacement reaction in which copper metal is obtained when zinc displaces the Cu2+ion in the copper sulfate solution as mentioned in the reaction below.

Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) → ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)

  • The oxidation half-reaction can be written as: Zn → Zn2+ + 2e
  • The reduction half-reaction can be written as: Cu2+ + 2e → Cu

Oxidation Vs Reduction

In oxidation, electrons are lost, there is an increase in oxidation number and energy is released. In reduction, electrons are gained, there is a decrease in oxidatin number and energy is stored. The difference between Oxidation and Reduction is briefly mentioned below.

Oxidation Vs Reduction
Oxidation Reduction
Losing electrons Gaining electrons
Increase in oxidation number Decrease in oxidation number
For a given compound losing hydrogen For a given compound gaining hydrogen
This reaction releases energy This reaction stores energy
oxidizing agents: Ozone, Bleach, peroxide Common reducing agent is metal

Oxidation and Reduction Equations

The types of Oxidation and Reduction Equations are mentioned below.

1. Balancing Oxidation- Reduction Equations

A trial-and-error approach to balance chemical equations involves playing with the equationOxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_70.1adjusting the ratio of the reactants and productsOxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_70.1until the below mentioned goals have been achieved.

  1. Number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation is the same and therefore the mass is conserved.
  2. The sum of the positive and negative charges is the same on both sides of the equation and therefore the charge is conserved. (Charge is conserved because electrons are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.)

Following are the balanced equations that can be written for the reaction between the permanganate ion and hydrogen peroxide.

2 MnO4(aq) + H2O2(aq) + 6 H+(aqOxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_90.1 2 Mn2+(aq) + 3 O2(g) + 4 H2O(l)
2 MnO4(aq) + 3 H2O2(aq) + 6 H+(aqOxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_90.1 2 Mn2+(aq) + 4 O2(g) + 6 H2O(l)
2 MnO4(aq) + 5 H2O2(aq) + 6 H+(aqOxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_90.1 2 Mn2+(aq) + 5 O2(g) + 8 H2O(l)
2 MnO4(aq) + 7 H2O2(aq) + 6 H+(aqOxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_90.1 2 Mn2+(aq) + 6 O2(g) + 10 H2O(l)

2. Redox Reactions In Acidic Solutions

Some argue that there is no need to use half-reactions to balance equations because they can be balanced by trial and error method. The half-reaction technique becomes indispensable, however, in balancing reactions such as the oxidation of sulfur dioxide by the dichromate ion in acidic solution.

H+
SO2(aq) + Cr2O72-(aq) Oxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_90.1 SO42-(aq) + Cr3+(aq)

3. Redox Reactions in Basic Solutions

Half-reactions are also valuable for balancing equations in basic solutions. While using this method, you need to recognize that basic solutions contain H2O molecules and OH ions. We can therefore add water molecules or hydroxide ions to either side of the equation, as needed.

The following equation describes the reaction between the permanganate ion and hydrogen peroxide in an acidic solution.

2 MnO4(aq) + 5 H2O2(aq) + 6 H+(aqOxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_140.12 Mn2+(aq) + 5 O2(g) + 8 H2O(l)

4. Molecular Redox Reactions

Lewis structures play an important role in understanding oxidation-reduction reactions with complex molecules. Consider the following reaction, for example, which is used in the Breathalyzer to determine the amount of ethyl alcohol or ethanol on the breath of individuals who are suspected of driving while under the influence.

3 CH3CH2OH(g) + 2 Cr2O72-(aq) + 16 H+(aqOxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_90.13 CH3CO2H(aq) + 4 Cr3+(aq) + 11 H2O(l)

You May also Read:-

Oxidation and Reduction – FAQs

Q. What is Oxidation and Reduction?

Ans. Oxidation and Reduction can be defined as a chemical reaction that takes place between an oxidizing substance and a reducing substance. The oxidizing substance loses electrons in the reaction, whereas the reducing substance gains electrons.

Q. What is the example of oxidation?

Ans. Iron rusting and wood-rotting are the examples of oxidation.

Q. What is the difference between oxidation and reduction?

Ans. In Reduction there is a gain of electrons whereas oxidation is the loss of electrons.

Download your free content now!

Congratulations!

Oxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_170.1

General Awareness & Science Capsule PDF

Download your free content now!

We have already received your details!

Oxidation and Reduction, Know about its Equations & Examples_180.1

Please click download to receive Adda247's premium content on your email ID

Incorrect details? Fill the form again here

General Awareness & Science Capsule PDF

Thank You, Your details have been submitted we will get back to you.