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Vitamin Deficiency Diseases | GA Study Notes

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases: The fat-soluble vitamins ( A, D, E, and K ) dissolve in fat and can be stored in your body. The water-soluble vitamins C and the B-complex vitamins (such as vitamins B6, B12, niacin, riboflavin, and folate) need to dissolve in water before the body can absorb them. In 1912, Casimir Funk originally coined the term “vitamin”.
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Vitamin
Chemical Name
Deficiency Diseases
A
Retinol
Night blindness Xerophthalmia
B₁
Thymine ( Beri-Beri)
It is a skin & bone disorder disease.
B₂
Ariboflavin
 Cracking of skin, cracking of lips, & tongue.
B₃
Niacin or Nicotinamide (niacinamide)
Whitening of hair, (Loss of Memory) Dementia, Insomnia
B₅
Pantothenic Acid
Pellagra of 4.D Syndrome (Diarrhoea, Diphtheria, Dementia, Death)
B₆
Pyridoxine
Skin disorders
B₇
Biotin
Hair fall, Dementia, Anemia
B₁₂
CyanoCobalamin
(Natural content of cobalt)
Anemia, Skin disorder, Insomnia
C
Ascorbic acid
Bleeding of Gums (Pyorrhea) Swelling of Gums.
D
Only vitamins not prepared in our body
Calciferol
1. Rickets → Child
2. Osteomalacia → Male
3. Osteoporosis → Female
E
Tocopherol
Less fertility
K
Phylloquinone
Non-clotting of blood

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases | GA Study Notes_50.1

VITAMIN A (Retinol)

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases | GA Study Notes_60.1

SOURCE

Dairy products, cod liver oil, liver, dark green and yellow vegetables and fruits

 FUNCTION

  • Maintains eye health
  • Promotes growth and development, maintains healthy bones and teeth
  • Enhances the protection and regeneration of cells and mucous membrane
  • Maintains healthy respiratory and intestinal tracts
  • Maintain healthy hair, nails, and skin

SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY

  • Night blindness, dry eyes
  • Dry skin
  • Stomach discomfort
  • Poor growth
  • Weak bones and teeth

SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS

  • Dry, scaly, peeling, and itchy skin, rash
  • Hair loss
  • Poor appetite, fatigue
  • Vomiting, stomach discomfort
  • Liver injury
  • Headache, bone pain
  • Nervousness, irritability

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VITAMIN B

VITAMIN B1 (Thymine)

SOURCE

  • sprouts, yeast

Disease

  • Beri-beri

VITAMIN B2 (Riboflavin)

SOURCE
sprout, present in cow’s milk(yellowish)
Disease
Cheilosis, ulceration

VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine)

FUNCTION

It is responsible for remembering dreams.

SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY

  • Anemia
  • Nervousness, insomnia, depression
  • Muscle cramps

VITAMIN C (Ascorbic acid)

SOURCE

Citrus fruits(orange, grapefruit, lemon), strawberry, black current, kiwi fruit, tomato, green leafy vegetables, green pepper

FUNCTION

  • Helps synthesize collagen; promotes the growth and repair of cells, gum, teeth, blood vessels, and bones
  • Helps to heal after operation and injury
  • Helps calcium and iron absorption
  • Enhances immunity

SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY

  • Scurvy
  • Gum
  • inflammation and bleeding, fall of teeth
  • Susceptibility to skin bleeding, a burst of capillary vessels
  • Weakness, fatigue
  • Bone pain, swollen and aching joints

SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS

  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Kidney stone

In smokers and drinkers, vitamin C is absent.

VITAMIN K (Phylloquinone)
SOURCE
Green leafy vegetables, soya beans. The human body can also produce Vitamin K through germs in the colon(part of the small intestine).
FUNCTION
  • Helps blood clotting, prevents bleeding
  • Maintains health of the liver
SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY
Uncontrol bleeding from wounds due to clotting difficulty
SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS
Can lead to liver damage
VITAMIN E (Tocopherol)=Beauty Vitamin
It is also known as Antisterility Vitamin.
Vitamin Deficiency Diseases | GA Study Notes_70.1

SOURCE

Green leafy vegetables, whole-wheat cereals, nuts, sprouts, egg  yolk
FUNCTION
  • Maintains normal conditions of cells, and healthy skin and tissues
  • Protects red blood cells
  • Antioxidation
  • Enhance immunity
SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY
Newborn infants: hemolytic anemia
Adults: weakness

SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS

  • Low thyroxine level
  • Fertility Disease
  • Headache, dizziness, fatigue
  • Stomach discomfort, poor appetite
VITAMIN D (Calciferol)=(Sunhine Vitamin)
Vitamin Deficiency Diseases | GA Study Notes_80.1
SOURCE
Egg yolk, liver, cod liver oil, fish. Our skins also produce Vitamin D when exposed to sunlight
FUNCTION
  • Helps the body absorb and utilize calcium and phosphorus, so as to maintain bones, teeth, and brain healthy
  • Maintains normal calcium level in blood
SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY
  • Children: rickets
  • Adults: Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis
SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS
  • Calcified cartilage
  • High calcium level in the blood causes abnormal heartbeat and damage to organs such as kidneys
  • Vomiting, diarrhea
  • Sore eyes
  • Itchy skin

Q1. Beriberi is caused due to—
A. Vitamin A
B. Vitamin B
C. Vitamin C
D. Vitamin D
Ans-> Vitamin B

Q2. Vitamin D is also known as—
A.  Reproductive vitamin
B. Sunshine vitamin
C. Ascorbic acid
D. Growth vitamin
Ans-> Sunshine vitamin

Q3. The vitamin which is water soluble?
A. Vitamin A
B. Vitamin B
C. Vitamin K
D. Vitamin D
Ans-> Vitamin B

Q4. A vitamin that plays a vital role in the coagulating property of blood?
A. Vitamin A
B. Vitamin B
C. Vitamin K
D. Vitamin D
Ans-> Vitamin K

Q5. Rickets is caused due to—
A. Vitamin A
B. Vitamin B
C. Vitamin C
D. Vitamin D
Ans-> Vitamin D

Q6. Vitamin D is—
A. Pyridoxin
B. Tocoferol
C. Ergosterol
D. Calciferol
Ans-> Calciferol

Q7. Scurvy is caused due to—
A. Vitamin B2
B. Ascorbic acid
C. Glutamic acid
D. Vitamin B12
Ans-> Ascorbic acid

Q8. Which of the following vitamin is responsible for remembering dreams?
A. Vitamin B
B. Vitamin B6
C. Vitamin A
D. Vitamin C
Ans-> Vitamin B6

Q9. Vitamin B6 is known as—
A. Pyridoxin
B. Tocopherol
C. Thiamine
D. Riboflavin
Ans-> Pyridoxin

Q10. Vitamin B12 contains—
A. Mn
B. Fe
C. Co
D. Mg
Ans-> Co

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