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Constitution of India, Read about Parts, Articles and Amendments of Indian Constitution

Constitution of India

The Indian Constitution: The Bharatiya Samvidhan, also known as the Constitution of India, is the country’s paramount legal text. It lays the groundwork for India’s political laws, organizational structure, procedures, and delineates the responsibilities and powers of its governmental entities. The Constitution not only enumerates the fundamental rights and duties of Indian citizens but also outlines directive principles. Boasting the title of the world’s lengthiest written constitution, it was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26th November 1949 and enacted on 26th January 1950.

Given its significance, the Indian Constitution frequently appears in competitive examinations, especially in sections dedicated to General Awareness or General Knowledge. This piece offers key insights into the Constitution to aid candidates’ preparation, ensuring a strong grasp of this topic for better exam performance.

The Indian Constitution

India has the world’s lengthiest constitution with 25 parts and 12 schedules. The Constitution of India is the framework demarcating the code, procedures, rights, duties, rules, and regulations to be followed and adopted by the citizens and government. B. R. Ambedkar was the chief architect and known as the “Father of the Indian Constitution”. The constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly of India and came into force on 26 January 1950 which is celebrated as Republic Day. At the time of commencement, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. There are 105 amendments made to the constitution of India to date. Check out the Indian Constitution parts, and schedules along with some articles in detail.
Parts of the Indian Constitution

Initially, there were 22 parts of the Indian constitution. Later, amendments to Part IVA, IXA, IXB, and XIVA were added to it. Take a look at the parts of the Indian constitution.

Part Subject Articles
Part I The Union and its territory Art. 1 to 4
Part II Citizenship Art. 5 to 11
Part III Fundamental Rights Art. 12 to 35
Part IV Directive Principles Art. 36 to 51
Part IVA Fundamental Duties Art. 51A
Part V The Union

Chapter I – The Executive (Art.52 to 78)
Chapter II – Parliament (Art.79 to 122)
Chapter III – Legislative Powers of President (Art.123)
Chapter IV – The Union Judiciary (Art. 124 to 147)
Chapter V – Comptroller and Auditor-General of India (Art.148 to 151)
Art. 52 to 151
Part VI The States

Chapter I – General (Art.152)
Chapter II – The Executive (Art.153 to 167)
Chapter III – The State Legislature (Art.168 to 212)
Chapter IV – Legislative Powers of Governor (Art.213)
Chapter V – The High Courts (Art.214 to 232)
Chapter VI – Subordinate Courts (Art.233 to 237)
Art. 152 to 237
Part VII States in the B part of the First Schedule
Repealed by Const. (7th Amendment) Act, 1956
Part VIII The Union Territories Art. 239 to 242
Part IX The Panchayats Art. 243 to 243O
Part IXA The Municipalities Art. 243P to 243ZG
Part IXB Co-operative Societies Art. 243H to 243ZT
Part X The Scheduled and Tribal Areas Art. 244 to 244A
Part XI Relations between the Union and the States

Chapter I – Legislative Relations (Art.245 to 255)
Chapter II – Administrative Relations (Art.256 to 263)
Art. 245 to 263
Part XII Finance, Property, Contracts, and Suits

Chapter I – Finance (Art.264 to 291)
Chapter II – Borrowing (Art.292 to 293)
Chapter III – Property, Contracts, Rights, Liabilities, Obligations and Suits (Art.294 to 300)
Chapter IV – Right to Property (Art.300-A)
Art. 264 to 300A
Part XIII Trade, Commerce, and Intercourse within the Territory of India Art. 301 to 307
Part XIV Services under the Union and the States Art. 308 to 323
Part XIVA Tribunals Art. 323A to 323B
Part XV Elections Art. 324 to 329A
Part XVI Special provisions relating to certain classes Art. 330 to 342
Part XVII Official Language

Chapter I – Language of the Union (Art.343 to 344)
Chapter II – Regional Languages (Art.345 to 347)
Chapter III-Language of the Supreme Court, High Courts, and so on (Art.348 to 349)
Chapter IV-Special Directives (Art.350 to 351)
Art. 343 to 351
Part XVIII Emergency Provisions Art. 352 to 360
Part XIX Miscellaneous Art. 361 to 367
Part XX Amendment of the Constitution Art. 368
Part XXI Temporary, Transitional, and Special Provisions Art. 369 to 392
Part XXII Short title, commencement, authoritative text in Hindi, and repeals Art. 393 to 395

Indian Constitution Schedules

Indian Constitution originally had 8 schedules. Later, four more schedules were added by different amendments taking the total to 25. Schedules are basically tables that contain additional details not mentioned in the articles.
Indian Constitution Schedules 1 to 12
First schedule – The list of states and union territories and their territories
Second schedule – Provisions of the President, Governors of States, Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State, the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India the list of states and union territories and their territories.
Third Schedule – The Forms of Oaths or Affirmations.
Fourth Schedule – Provisions as to the allocation of seats in the Council of States.
Fifth Schedule – Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes.
Sixth Schedule – Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
Seventh Schedule – The Union list, State list, and the concurrent list.
Eighth Schedule – The list of recognized languages.
Ninth Schedule – Provisions as to the validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
Tenth Schedule – Provisions as to disqualification on the ground of defection.
Eleventh Schedule – The powers, authority, and responsibilities of Panchayats.
Twelfth Schedule (Added by the 74th Amendment Act of 1992)– The powers, authority, and responsibilities of Municipalities.

Indian Constitution Articles

The fundamental rights, enshrined in the Indian Constitution, play a crucial role in protecting the rights and liberties of every citizen. They are covered from Articles 12 to 35. Here is a comprehensive list of fundamental rights along with their corresponding articles:

S.No Fundamental Right Article of Constitution
1 Right To Equality
(Article 14 to 18)
Art. 14- Equality Before Law
Art. 15- Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
Art. 16- Equality of Opportunity in public employment
Art. 17- Abolition of untouchability
Art. 18- Abolition of Titles
2 Right To Freedom
(Article 19 to 22)
Art 19- Freedom of speech, expression, movement
Art 20- Protection from a conviction for offenses
Art 21- Right to Life & Personal Liberty
Art 22- Protection against arrest or detention
3 Right Against Exploitation
(Article 23 & 24)
Art 23- Protection from Trafficking & Forced Labour
Art 24- Ban on child labor
4 Right To Freedom of Religion
(Article 25 to 28)
Art 25- Freedom to practice one’s own religion
Art 26- Freedom to manage religious affairs
Art 27- No taxation for the promotion of religion
Art 28- Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in institutions
5 Cultural & Educational Rights (Article 29 & 30) Art 29- To Protect & Preserve the Minorities
Art 30- Right of minorities to administer educational institutions
6 Right To Constitutional Remedies (Article 32) Art 32- Remedies for enforcement of rights

The Supreme Court has reaffirmed its judgment in the Menaka case in the subsequent cases. It has declared the following rights as part of Article 21:

(1) Right to live with human dignity.
(2) Right to a decent environment including pollution-free water and air and protection against hazardous industries.
(3) Right to livelihood.
(4) Right to privacy.
(5) Right to shelter.
(6) Right to health.
(7) Right to free education up to 14 years of age.
(8) Right to free legal aid.
(9) Right against solitary confinement.
(10) Right to a speedy trial.
(11) Right against handcuffing.
(12) Right against inhuman treatment.
(13) Right against delayed execution.
(14) Right to travel abroad.
(15) Right against bonded labor.
(16) Right against custodial harassment.
(17) Right to emergency medical aid.
(18) Right to timely medical treatment in a government hospital.
(19) Right not to be driven out of a state.
(20) Right to a fair trial.
(21) Right of a prisoner to have necessities of life.
(22) Right of women to be treated with decency and dignity.
(23) Right against public hanging.
(24) Right to hearing.
(25) Right to information.
(26) Right to reputation.
(27) Right of appeal from a judgment of conviction
(28) Right to social security and protection of the family
(29) Right to social and economic justice and empowerment
(30) Right against bar fetters
(31) Right to appropriate life insurance policy
(32) Right to sleep
(33) Right to freedom from noise pollution
(34) Right to electricity

Indian Constitution: Important Amendments

There are a total of 104 amendments to date since the inception of the Constitution in 1950.

Amendment Details
The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951 Changes to the Fundamental Rights provisions of the constitution
The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952 Amended Article 81 in order to remove the prescribed limit of 7,50,000 of the population for one member to be elected to the Lok Sabha.
The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act, 1954 Changes in the Seventh Schedule consisting of the three Legislative Lists and entry 33 of the Concurrent List were substituted by a new one.
The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955 Articles 31 and 31A were amended
The Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955 amended Article 3
The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act,1956 This amendment was designed to implement the State Reorganisation Act.
The Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act, 1960 It provided for the transfer of certain territories of India to Pakistan under an agreement between India and Pakistan
The Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Act, 1961 The Tenth Amendment integrates the areas of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli with the Union of India
The Eleventh Amendment, 1962 Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament.
The Twelfth Amendment, 1962 incorporated the territories of Goa, Daman, and Diu in the Indian Union.
The Thirteenth Amendment, 1962, created Nagaland as a state of the Union of India.
The Fifteenth Amendment, 1963 Raise the retirement age of High Court judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments
The Twenty-first Amendment, 1967 included Sindhi as the 15th regional language in the Eighth Schedule.
The Twenty-sixth Amendment, 1971 Abolished the titles and special privileges of former rulers of princely states.
The Thirty-first Amendment, 1973 Increased the elective strength of the Lok Sabha from 525 to 545.
The Thirty-sixth Amendment 1975 Made Sikkim a state of the Indian Union.
The Thirty-eighth Amendment 1975 Provided that the President can make a declaration of emergency
The Forty-second Amendment 1976
  • Supremacy to the Parliament and gave primacy to the Directive Principles over the Fundamental Rights.
  • It also added 10 Fundamental Duties in the Constitution.
  • The Preamble of the Constitution was also altered from ‘Sovereign Democratic Republic’ to read ‘Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic’ and ‘Unity of the Nation’ to read ‘Unity and Integrity of the Nation’.
The Forty-fourth Amendment 1978
  • Restored the normal duration of the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies to 5 years.
  • The right to property was deleted from Part III.
The Forty-fifth Amendment 1980, Extended reservation for SC/ST by an additional 10 years (up to 1990).
The Fifty-second Amendment 1985, Inserted the Tenth Schedule in the Constitution regarding provisions for disqualification on the grounds of defection.
The Fifty-sixth Amendment 1987 The Hind version of the Constitution of India was accepted for all purposes statehood was conferred on the UT of Goa.
The Sixty-first Amendment 1989 Reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha as well as the Assemblies.
The Seventy-third Amendment 1992
(Panchayat Bill)
Seeks to provide, among other things, Gram Sabha in villages,  the constitution of Panchayats at the village and other levels, direct elections to all seats in Panchayats and reservation of seats for SC and ST, and fixing of tenure of 5 years for Panchayats.
The Seventy-fourth Amendment, 1993
(Nagarpalika Bill)
Provides for, among other things, the constitution of three types of municipalities and  the reservation of seats in every municipality for the SC/ST, women, and the OBCs
The Eighty-sixth Amendment 2002
  • Deals with the insertion of a new Article 21A after Article 21.
  • The new Article 21A deals with the Right to Education.
The Eighty-ninth Amendment 2003 Provides for the Amendment of Article 338
The Ninety-first Amendment 2003 Provides for the Amendment of Article 75.
The Ninety-Second Amendment 2004 Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali, and Maithili as official languages.
The Ninety-Third Amendment 2006 Reservation (27%) for Other Backward Classes(OBC) in government as well as private educational institutions.
The Ninety-Ninth Amendment 2015 Formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission
The One-Hundredth Amendment 2015 The term the Constitution (100th Amendment) Act, 2015 was in news in the fourth week of May 2015  as the President of India Pranab Mukherjee gave his assent to the Constitution (119th Amendment) Bill, 2013  that related to the Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) between India and Bangladesh
The One Hundredth One Amendment 2017 Introduced the Goods and Services Tax
One Hundred and Third Amendment Act 2019 Introduces 10% reservation for economically weaker sections of society for admission to Central Government-run educational institutions and private educational institutions
The Constitution (104th Amendment) Act 2020 It extended the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies.


Who is the father of Indian Constitution?

B. R. Ambedkar is known as the father of Indian Constitution.

How many fundamental rights are there in Indian Constitution?

There are 6 fundamental rights provided in the Indian Constitution.

What are the 6 fundamental rights in Indian Constitution?

The fundamental rights of Indian Citizens are:
1. Right to equality
2. Right to freedom
3. Right against exploitation
4. Right to freedom of religion
5. Cultural and educational rights
6. Right to constitutional remedies

What is constitution in 100 words?

The Constitution of India is a document containing the framework of the political system, the duties, rights, limitations, and structure of the government that this nation ought to follow. It also spells out the rights and duties of the Indian citizens.

Who signed first Indian Constitution?

Dr. Rajendra Prasad signing the Indian Constitution on 24 January 1950. Dr. Rajendra Prasad shaking hands with Jawaharlal Nehru after signing the Indian Constitution on 24 January 1950.

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