Constitution of India
The Indian Constitution: The Constitution of India or the Bharatiya Samvidhan is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the frame that demarcates the Fundamental political law, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out the Indian Constitution’s fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It’s the longest written public constitution in the world. It was espoused by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and came effective on 26 January 1950.
Most of the competitive exam asks questions related to the Indian Constitution. It is a very important topic for the examination which has General Awareness or General Knowledge topic in it. In this article, we are providing you with important notes on the Indian constitution. The candidates who are about to appear for such exams can prepare through this article, it will help you to score good marks in questions asked from the Indian Constitution.
The Indian Constitution
Parts of the Indian Constitution
Initially, there were 22 parts of the Indian constitution. Later, amendments to Part IVA, IXA, IXB, and XIVA were added to it. Take a look at the parts of the Indian constitution.
|Part I||The Union and its territory||Art. 1 to 4|
|Part II||Citizenship||Art. 5 to 11|
|Part III||Fundamental Rights||Art. 12 to 35|
|Part IV||Directive Principles||Art. 36 to 51|
|Part IVA||Fundamental Duties||Art. 51A|
|Part V||The Union
Chapter I – The Executive (Art.52 to 78)
Chapter II – Parliament (Art.79 to 122)
Chapter III – Legislative Powers of President (Art.123)
Chapter IV – The Union Judiciary (Art. 124 to 147)
Chapter V – Comptroller and Auditor-General of India (Art.148 to 151)
|Art. 52 to 151|
|Part VI||The States
Chapter I – General (Art.152)
Chapter II – The Executive (Art.153 to 167)
Chapter III – The State Legislature (Art.168 to 212)
Chapter IV – Legislative Powers of Governor (Art.213)
Chapter V – The High Courts (Art.214 to 232)
Chapter VI – Subordinate Courts (Art.233 to 237)
|Art. 152 to 237|
|Part VII||States in the B part of the First schedule
Repealed by Const. (7th Amendment) Act, 1956
|Part VIII||The Union Territories||Art. 239 to 242|
|Part IX||The Panchayats||Art. 243 to 243O|
|Part IXA||The Municipalities||Art. 243P to 243ZG|
|Part IXB||Co-operative Societies||Art. 243H to 243ZT|
|Part X||The Scheduled and Tribal Areas||Art. 244 to 244A|
|Part XI||Relations between the Union and the States
Chapter I – Legislative Relations (Art.245 to 255)
Chapter II – Administrative Relations (Art.256 to 263)
|Art. 245 to 263|
|Part XII||Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
Chapter I – Finance (Art.264 to 291)
Chapter II – Borrowing (Art.292 to 293)
Chapter III – Property, Contracts, Rights, Liabilities, Obligations and Suits (Art.294 to 300)
Chapter IV – Right to Property (Art.300-A)
|Art. 264 to 300A|
|Part XIII||Trade, Commerce and Intercourse within the Territory of India||Art. 301 to 307|
|Part XIV||Services under the Union and the States||Art. 308 to 323|
|Part XIVA||Tribunals||Art. 323A to 323B|
|Part XV||Elections||Art. 324 to 329A|
|Part XVI||Special provisions relating to certain classes||Art. 330 to 342|
|Part XVII||Official Language
Chapter I – Language of the Union (Art.343 to 344)
Chapter II – Regional Languages (Art.345 to 347)
Chapter III-Language of the Supreme Court, High Courts, and so on (Art.348 to 349)
Chapter IV-Special Directives (Art.350 to 351)
|Art. 343 to 351|
|Part XVIII||Emergency Provisions||Art. 352 to 360|
|Part XIX||Miscellaneous||Art. 361 to 367|
|Part XX||Amendment of the Constitution||Art. 368|
|Part XXI||Temporary, Transitional, and Special Provisions||Art. 369 to 392|
|Part XXII||Short title, commencement, authoritative text in Hindi, and repeals||Art. 393 to 395|
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Indian Constitution Schedules
|Indian Constitution Schedules 1 to 12|
First schedule – The list of states and union territories and their territories
Second schedule – Provisions of the President, Governors of States, Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State, the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India the list of states and union territories and their territories.
Third Schedule – The Forms of Oaths or Affirmations.
Fourth Schedule – Provisions as to the allocation of seats in the Council of States.
Fifth Schedule – Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes.
Sixth Schedule – Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
Seventh Schedule – The Union list, State list, and the concurrent list.
Eighth Schedule – The list of recognized languages.
Ninth Schedule – Provisions as to the validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
Tenth Schedule – Provisions as to disqualification on the ground of defection.
Eleventh Schedule – The powers, authority, and responsibilities of Panchayats.
Twelfth Schedule – The powers, authority, and responsibilities of Municipalities.
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Indian Constitution Articles
Fundamental rights are covered from Articles 12 to 35. It is a major part that every citizen must be aware of. We are providing you with the list of all fundamental rights along with the article.
|FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF INDIAN CITIZENS|
|S.No||Fundamental Right||Article of Constitution|
|1||Right To Equality
(Article- 14 to 18)
|Art. 14- Equality Before Law|
|Art. 15- Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth|
|Art. 16- Equality of opportunity in public employment|
|Art. 17- Abolition of untouchability|
|Art. 18- Abolition of Titles|
|2||Right To Freedom
(Article- 19 to 22)
|Art 19- Freedom of speech, expression, movement|
|Art 20- Protection from conviction for offences|
|Art 21- Right to life & Personal Liberty|
|Art 22- Protection against arrest or detention|
|3||Right Against Exploitation
(Article- 23 & 24)
|Art 23- Protection from trafficking & Forced Labour|
|Art 24- Ban on child labour|
|4||Right To Freedom of Religion
(Article- 25 to 28)
|Art 25- Freedom to practice one’s own religion|
|Art 26- Freedom to manage religious affairs|
|Art 27- No taxation for promotion of religion|
|Art 28- Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in institutions|
|5||Cultural & Educational Rights (Article 29 & 30)||Art 29- To Protect & Preserve the minorities|
|Art 30- Right of minorities to administer educational institutions|
|6||Right To Constitutional Remedies (Article 32)||Art 32- Remedies for enforcement of rights|
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The Supreme Court has reaffirmed its judgement in the Menaka case in the subsequent cases. It has declared the following rights as part of Article 21:
(1) Right to live with human dignity.
(2) Right to the decent environment including pollution-free water and air and protection against hazardous industries.
(3) Right to livelihood.
(4) Right to privacy.
(5) Right to shelter.
(6) Right to health.
(7) Right to free education up to 14 years of age.
(8) Right to free legal aid.
(9) Right against solitary confinement.
(10) Right to a speedy trial.
(11) Right against handcuffing.
(12) Right against inhuman treatment.
(13) Right against delayed execution.
(14) Right to travel abroad.
(15) Right against bonded labor.
(16) Right against custodial harassment.
(17) Right to emergency medical aid.
(18) Right to timely medical treatment in a government hospital.
(19) Right not to be driven out of a state.
(20) Right to a fair trial.
(21) Right of a prisoner to have necessities of life.
(22) Right of women to be treated with decency and dignity.
(23) Right against public hanging.
(24) Right to hearing.
(25) Right to information.
(26) Right to reputation.
(27) Right of appeal from a judgment of conviction
(28) Right to social security and protection of the family
(29) Right to social and economic justice and empowerment
(30) Right against bar fetters
(31) Right to appropriate life insurance policy
(32) Right to sleep
(33) Right to freedom from noise pollution
(34) Right to electricity
Important Amendments of the Indian Constitution
There are a total of 104 amendments to date since the inception of the constitution in 1950.
|The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951||Changes to the Fundamental Rights provisions of the constitution|
|The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952||Amended Article 81 in order to remove the prescribed limit of 7,50,000 of the population for one member to be elected to the Lok Sabha.|
|The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act, 1954||Changes in the Seventh Schedule consisting of the three Legislative Lists and entry 33 of the Concurrent List was substituted by a new one.|
|The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955||article 31 and 31A were amended|
|The Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955||amended Article 3|
|The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act,1956||This amendment was designed to implement the State Reorganisation Act.|
|The Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act, 1960||It provided for the transfer of certain territories of India to Pakistan under an agreement between India and Pakistan|
|The Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Act, 1961||The Tenth Amendment integrates the areas of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli with the Union of India|
|The Eleventh Amendment, 1962||Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament.|
|The Twelfth Amendment, 1962||incorporated the territories of Goa, Daman, and Diu in the Indian Union.|
|The Thirteenth Amendment, 1962,||created Nagaland as a state of the Union of India.|
|The Fifteenth Amendment, 1963||Raise the retirement age of High court judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments|
|The Twenty-first Amendment, 1967||included Sindhi as the 15th regional language in the Eighth Schedule.|
|The Twenty-sixth Amendment, 1971||abolished the titles and special privileges of former rulers of princely states.|
|The Thirty-first Amendment, 1973||increased the elective strength of the Lok Sabha from 525 to 545.|
|The Thirty-sixth Amendment, 1975,||made Sikkim a state of the Indian Union.|
|The Thirty-eighth Amendment, 1975,||provided that the President can make a declaration of emergency|
|The Forty-second Amendment, 1976,||
|The Forty-fourth Amendment, 1978||
|The Forty-fifth Amendment, 1980,||extended reservation for SC/ST by an additional 10 years (up to 1990).|
|The Fifty-second Amendment, 1985,||Inserted the Tenth Schedule in the Constitution regarding provisions for disqualification on the grounds of defection.|
|The Fifty-sixth Amendment, 1987||The Hind version of the Constitution of India was accepted for all purposes statehood was conferred on the UT of Goa.|
|The Sixty-first Amendment, 1989||Reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha as well as the Assemblies.|
|The Seventy-third Amendment, 1992
|seeks to provide, among other things, Gram Sabha in villages, the constitution of Panchayats at the village and other levels, direct elections to all seats in Panchayats and reservation of seats for SC and ST and fixing of tenure of 5 years for Panchayats.|
|The Seventy-fourth Amendment, 1993
|provides for, among other things, the constitution of three types of municipalities and the reservation of seats in every municipality for the SC/ST, women and the OBCs|
|The Eighty-sixth Amendment, 2002||
|The Eighty-ninth Amendment, 2003,||provides for the Amendment of Article 338|
|The Ninety-first Amendment, 2003||provides for the Amendment of Article 75.|
|The Ninety-Second Amendment, 2004,||Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali, and Maithali as official languages.|
|The Ninety-Third Amendment, 2006,||reservation (27%) for other backward classes(OBC) in government as well as private educational institutions.|
|The Ninety-Ninth Amendment, 2015||Formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission|
|The One-Hundredth Amendment, 2015||The term the Constitution (100th Amendment) Act, 2015 was in news in the fourth week of May 2015 as the President of India Pranab Mukherjee gave his assent to the Constitution (119th Amendment) Bill, 2013 that related to the Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) between India and Bangladesh|
|The One Hundredth one Amendment, 2017,||Introduced the Goods and Services Tax|
|One Hundred and Third Amendment Act, 2019||introduces 10% reservation for economically weaker sections of society for admission to Central Government-run educational institutions and private educational institutions|
|The Constitution (104th Amendment) Act, 2020||It extended the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies.|
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