Adjectives


Introduction Adjective

An adjective is a describing word that qualifies a noun or a pronoun.

For Ex– Rishabh is a dull boy.

In the above sentence, ‘dull’ shows what kind of boy Rishabh is (ie. It qualifies Rishabh)

TYPES OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives are of the following types:
1. Adjective of quality
2. Adjective of quantity
3. Adjective of number
4. Proper Adjective
5. Demonstrative Adjective
6. Distributive Adjective
7. Interrogative Adjective
8. Possessive Adjective
9. Emphasizing Adjective
10. Relative Adjective
11. Exclamatory Adjective

Tips And Tricks-

1. Adjective of quality: Adjectives off quality show the quality and kind of a person or thing.
For Ex – Ritu is a beautiful girl
(1) An adjective can be used before a noun. (attributive use)

For Ex – Ashok was a great king
In the above example, adjective (great) has been used attributively.
(i) An adjective can also be used after a verb, (Predicative use)
For Ex – Ravi is smart.

In the above example, adjective (smart) has been used predicatively.
Note: Some adjectives like sleep, awake, afraid, ashamed, alike, alone etc. are used only predicatively.
For Ex – Ram is afraid.
Sita and Gita are alike.

2. Adjective of quantity:. Adjectives of quantity are used to denote the quantity of nouns or pronouns.
For Ex – Some, all, any, enough, much etc.
For Ex – Give him some milk.
Enough oil is there in the urn.
Uses of adjectives of quantity.
1. Some is used in affirmative sentences before uncountable nouns.
For Ex – I have some oil.
2. Any is used in negative sentences before plural countable nouns
For Ex – He does not have any problems.
3. Many is used for countable nouns whereas much is used for uncountable nouns.
For Ex – I have many works to do (wrong)
I have much work to do (correct)
I have many pens (correct)

3. Adjective of number: Adjective that shows the number of nouns or pronouns is called adjective of number.
Adjective of number is of two types:
(i) Definite (ii) Indefinite
(i) Definite Numerals: These are used to denote an exact number.
For Ex – One car, second boy, first row, etc.
(ii) Indefinite Adjectives: Adjectives than do not denote an exact number or order are called Indefinite Adjectives.

For Ex – Few girls have come.
He has several books.

4. Proper Adjective: Adjectives which are formed from proper nouns are called proper Adjectives
For Ex – Gandhian Philosophy
Indian Economy

5. Demonstrative Adjective: Adjectives which point out which person or thing is being talked about are called demonstrative adjectives.
For Ex – That pen is yours.
This boy is fatter than you.
Those trees are quite tall.

Note: The number of a demonstrative adjective and the noun qualified by it must be the same.
For Ex – These kind of Necklace is expensive (wrong)
This kind of Necklace is expensive (correct)

6. Distributive Adjective: Distributive Adjectives are those adjectives which are used to refer to
members of a group as individuals.
For Ex – Each student has passed.
Every boy was present yesterday.

Note: Each, every, either or neither can be used both as an adjective (when place before a noun) and as a pronoun (when followed by some other word)
For Ex – Each boy has come Distributive Noun Adjective
Each of the boys has come. Distributive Pronoun.

7. Interrogative Adjective: When Interrogative Pronouns (what/which/whose) are followed by a noun, then they are said to be Interrogative Adjectives.
For Ex – What kind of man are you?
Which car is yours?

8. Possessive Adjective: Adjectives formed from possessive pronoun are called Possessive Adjectives.
For Ex – My book has been lost
Your father is coming.

9. Emphasizing Adjective: Adjectives which are used to emphasize a noun are called Emphasizing
Adjectives.
For Ex – I cooked it with my own hands.
Emphasizing adjective.

10. Relative Adjectives: When Relative Pronouns which and what are used as adjectives, they are called
relative adjectives.
For Ex – He was injured, which fact

11. Exclamatory Adjective: Sometimes ‘what’ is used in exclamatory sentences, such type of usage makes
‘what’ an exclamatory adjective.
For Ex – What a beautiful painting!
What an idea!

Look at the following sentences
(i) Ravi is a tall boy
(ii) Ravi is taller than Rakesh
(iii) Ravi is the tallest boy of his class.

In the first sentence, ‘tall’ denotes the quality of Ravi and is therefore an adjective in “positive degree”.
In the second sentence, ‘taller’ denotes the comparison of a quality of Ravi with that of Rakesh and is therefore an adjective in ‘comparative degree’.
And, in the third sentence, ‘tallest’ denotes the highest degree of quality and is therefore an adjective in ‘Superlative Degree’.
Hence, adjectives have three types of degree:
1. Positive Degree (when no comparison is made)
2. Comparative Degree (when two things or set of things are compared)
3. Superlative Degree (To denote the highest degree of quality)

Ways To Change Positive Into Comparative And Superlative Degree

Rule 1: To change an adjective into comparative degree ‘er’ is added to the positive degree and ‘est’ is added to change it into superlative degree.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Bold Bolder Boldest
Deep Deeper Deepest
High Higher Highest
Strong Stronger Strongest
Thick Thicker Thickest
Weak Weaker Weakest

Rule 2: If ‘e’ is present at the end of a positive degree, ‘r’ is added to change it into a comparative degree and ‘st’ to change it into superlative degree.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Able Abler Ablest
Brave Braver Bravest
Fine Finer Finest
Noble Nobler Noblest
True Truer Truest
Wise Wiser Wisest

Rule 3: If the positive degree ends in a consonant and a short vowel comes before it, the last consonant is
doubled and then ‘er’ and ‘est’ are added to change it into comparative and superlative degree
respectively.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Big Bigger Biggest
Fit Fitter Fittest
Hot Hotter Hottest
Sad Sadder Saddest
Thin Thinner Thinnest
Wet Wetter Wettest

Rule 4: When a positive degree ends in ‘y’ and a consonant is present before ‘y’, the ‘y’ is converted into ‘i’, and then ‘er’ and ‘est’ are added respectively.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Dry Drier Driest
Happy Happier Happiest
Heavy Heavier Heaviest
Pretty Prettier Prettiest

Adjectives-Frequently Asked Questions

Q. Which Book is best to learn Adjectives?

Ans. Students can learn Adjectives and all the other important topics of english from English Language eBook or English Language Book.

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