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The Hindu Newspaper Editorial Vocabulary for IB ACIO Exam 2017

The Hindu Newspaper Editorial Vocabulary for IB ACIO Exam 2017_40.1
Dear students, English language is the flavor of the millennium. In every aspect of life, we need great English language skills to stand out and be a success in your chosen field. In your competitive Exams for govt. jobs, English section is the most challenging. The best way to improve your language skills is by Reading newspapers. We are providing 10 vocabulary words from The Hindu Newspaper Editorial. Read and learn.

1.De facto (adverb)

Meaning: in fact, whether by right or not.
(adjective)existing or holding a specified position in fact but not necessarily by legal right.
Synonyms: in practice, in effect, in fact, in reality, really, actually, in actuality, actual, existing, existent, real, effective
Example: Myanmar’s de facto leader Aung San Suu Kyi pledged on Tuesday to hold rights violators to account over the Rohingya crisis but refused to blame the country’s Army, as the U.N. Secretary-General demanded an end to the military campaign and a better deal for the Muslim minority.
2.Belligerent (adjective)
Meaning: hostile and aggressive.
Synonyms: hostile, aggressive, threatening, antagonistic, pugnacious, bellicose, truculent, confrontational, argumentative, quarrelsome, disputatious, contentious, militant, combative.
Example: It was Mr. Trump’s most direct threat to attack North Korea for belligerent acts that have included launching ballistic missiles over Japan and conducting underground nuclear tests.
3.Languish (verb)
Meaning: (of a person, animal, or plant) lose or lack vitality; grow weak.
Synonyms: weaken, grow weak, deteriorate, decline, go into a decline.
Example: Global trade and intellectual property are at a crossroads. In a time when multilateral consensus is languishing on a large number of issues, the Trump administration is considering pulling the U.S. out of most free trade agreements on the ground that it needs a more favourable environment for its companies and its people. 
4.Stratify (verb)
Meaning: form or arrange into strata, arrange or classify, place (seeds) close together in layers in moist sand or peat to preserve them or to help them germinate.
Example: At the global level, these sectors are stratified, with profits neatly split up between large corporations and new kinds of non-innovator firms that simply amass patents speculatively in upcoming, promising technologies for spurious returns. 
5.Patriciate (noun)
Meaning: a noble order or class, the position or rank of patrician in ancient Rome.
Example: The non-innovator companies are the patriciates of the system: when they hit the technology jackpot, they control the market and have the power to shift wealth and control competition. An example that beautifully captures the situation is Qualcomm Inc., an American company that is the legal patent holder of thousands of patents that are considered critical to build mobile phones with wireless technologies, accounting for a total profit of $5.7 billion through intellectual property licences in 2016 alone.
6.Unfettered (adjective)
Meaning: not confined or restricted.
“his imagination is unfettered by the laws of logic”
Synonyms: unrestrained, unrestricted, unconstrained, free, unbridled, untrammelled, unchecked, unconfined, unimpeded, unhampered, uncontrolled, unbound, untied, unchained, unshackled, loose
Example: For India, the fate of its pharmaceutical and software sectors swings in the balance, and guaranteeing fair and unfettered competition will be critical to ensure that we do not lose more ground to global companies abroad and at home. 
7.Ominous (adjective)
Meaning: giving the worrying impression that something bad is going to happen; threateningly inauspicious.
Synonyms: threatening, menacing, baleful, forbidding, sinister, doomy, inauspicious, unpropitious, 
Example: Seventy-one runs had been added between the end of the 15th and 25th overs, with Tamim, who had just clouted Ashwin for a hat-trick of fours, looking in ominous form.
8.Ramshackle (adjective)
Meaning: (especially of a house or vehicle) in a state of severe disrepair.
Synonyms: tumbledown, dilapidated, derelict, ruinous, falling to pieces, decrepit, neglected, gone to rack and ruin, run down, crumbling, decaying, disintegrating, rickety, shaky, unsteady, 
Example: They left in terror, travelled trembling, and ‘arrived’ traumatised to a ramshackle refuge. A new and powerful word moved from the small print of the English lexicon to everyday Indian speech: refugee.
9.Mayhem (noun)
Meaning: violent or extreme disorder; chaos.
Synonyms: chaos, disorder, confusion, havoc, bedlam, pandemonium, tumult, uproar, turmoil, madness, madhouse, hullabaloo, all hell broken loose, wild disarray, 
disorganization, maelstrom, trouble, disturbance, commotion, riot, anarchy, destruction.
Example: In Delhi shortly thereafter, he saw the same mayhem again. Another fast ensued, another calm. In his prayer meeting on January 20, 1948, as he spoke, a small bomb — they later called it a gun-cotton slab — detonated. There was some commotion.
10.Promulgate (verb)
Meaning: promote or make widely known (an idea or cause).
Synonyms: make known, make public, publicize, spread, communicate, propagate, disseminate, 
Example: Those connected historically and culturally to the idea of a Hindu Rashtra are, today, promulgating their passionately-held philosophy in different ways, dispersed incidents, apparently unconnected, in ways that make a Muslim feel fearful, a Christian feel as light as a leaf that can be blown off by a single majoritarian breath, a liberal feel vulnerable, a dissident feel targeted. 

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