Study notes on “VITAMINS”



VITAMINS

VITAMIN K (Phylloquinone)

SOURCE
Green leafy vegetables, soya beans. The human body can also produce Vitamin K through germs in the colon(part of small intestine).

FUNCTION

  • Helps blood clotting, prevent over bleeding
  • Maintains health of the liver
SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY
Uncontrol bleeding from wounds due to clotting difficulty
SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS
Can lead to liver damage
VITAMIN E (Tocopherol)=Beauty Vitamin


It is also known as Antisterility Vitamin.

SOURCE

Green leafy vegetables, whole-wheat cereals, nuts, sprouts, egg  yolk

FUNCTION

  • Maintains normal conditions of cells, and healthy skin and tissues
  • Protects red blood cells
  • Antioxidation
  • Enhance immunity
SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY
New born infants: haemolytic anaemia
Adults: weakness

SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS

  • Low thyroxine level
  • Fertility Desease
  • Headache, dizziness, fatigue
  • Stomach discomfort, poor appetite

VITAMIN D (Calciferol)=(Sunhine Vitamin)

SOURCE
Egg yolk, liver, cod liver oil, fish. Our skins also produces Vitamin D when exposed to sunlight

FUNCTION

  • Helps body absorb and utilize calcium and phosphorus, so as to maintain bones, teeth and brain healthy
  • Maintains normal calcium level in blood
SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY
  • Children: rickets
  • Adults: Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis
SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS
  • Calcified cartilage
  • High calcium level in the blood causes abnormal heart beat and damage to organs such as kidneys
  • Vomiting, diarrhea
  • Sore eyes
  • Itchy skin

VITAMIN A (Retinol)
SOURCE
Dairy products, cod liver oil,liver, dark green and yellow vegetables and fruits

FUNCTION

  • Maintains eye health
  • Promotes growth and development, maintains healthy bones and teeth
  • Enhances the protection and regeneration of cells and mucous membrane
  • Maintains healthy respiratory and intestinal tracts
  • Maintain healthy hair, nails and skin

SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY

  • Night blindness, dry eyes
  • Dry skin
  • Stomach discomfort
  • Poor growth
  • Weak bones and teeth

SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS

  • Dry, scaly, peeling, and itchy skin, rash
  • Hair loss
  • Poor appetite, fatigue
  • Vomiting, stomach discomfort
  • Liver injury
  • Headache, bone pain
  • Nervousness, irritability

VITAMIN B


VITAMIN B1 (Thymine)

SOURCE
sprouts, yeast
Desease
Beri-beri


VITAMIN B2 (Ryboflabin)


SOURCE
sprout, present in cow’s milk(yellowish)
Desease
Cheilosis, ulceration

VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine)


FUNCTION
It is responsible for rememeber dreams.


SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY
  • Anaemia 
  • Nervousness,
    insomnia,
    depression 
  • Muscle cramps

VITAMIN C (Ascorbic acid)

SOURCE
Citrus fruits(orange,grapefruit,lemon),strawberry,black current,kiwi fruit, tomato, green leafy vegetables, green pepper


FUNCTION
  • Helps synthesize collagen; promotes the growth and repair of cells, gum, teeth, blood vessels and bones
  • Helps healing after operation and injury
  • Helps calcium and iron absorption
  • Enhances immunity
SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY
  • Scurvy
  • Gum
  • inflammation and bleeding, fall of teeth
  • Susceptibility to skin bleeding, burst of capillary vessels
  • Weakness, fatigue
  • Bone pain, swollen and aching joints
SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Kidney stone

In smokers and drinkers vitamin C is absent.









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