GA Study Notes: Jainism For SSC and RRB Exams 2019

    • Jainism was founded by Aadinath and Rishabha Dev, while the real founder was Mahavir swami.
    • The five Mahavarta (important principles) of Jainism are-: Ahimsa, Satya (truth), Asteya (not to steal), Aparigraha and Brahmacharya.
    • The first 4 was added by 23rd Tirthankar “Parasnath” while the 5th was added by Mahavir.
    • Vardhamana Mahavira was a contemporary of Buddha.
    • He was born in 540 BC at kundigram in Vaishali(Bihar).
    • He was a kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis, a group that was part of the Vajji sangha.
    • The parents of Mahavira were Siddhartha and Trishala.His childhood name was Vardhmaan.
    • Mahavira married a princess named Yashoda.
    • Anujya or Priyadarshna was the daughter of Mahavira who was married to Jamali.
    • At the age of 30, Mahavira took permission from his elder brother “Nandi Vardhan” and left his home.
    • At the age of 42 years, under Sal tree on the bank of river Rijupalika, He attained the highest spiritual knowledge.
    • He died in 468 B.C because of self-starvation at Pava, near Rajgriha.
    • Mahavir gave his first sermon at Pava to 11 Brahman.
    • Jains believe that by following the three-fold path of right Belief, right Knowledge and right Con­duct, souls will be released from transmigration and reach the pure and blissful abode.
    • First Jain Council was held at Patliputra under the chairmanship of Sthulabhadra in 367 B.C.It resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas replacing the lost 14 Purvas.
    • The Second Jain Council was held at Vallabhi under the chairmanship of Devardhi in 526 A.D.
    • Jainism literature: They were written in Prakrit language.
    1. Aachrang Sutra- Tells about meditation of Mahavir for 12 years.
    2. Kalpa-sutra – Biographies of Jain Tirthankaras mainly ParashnaMahavir.
    3. Bhagwati Sutra – It contains thousands of question and answers on various topics from four Anuyogas, Such as soul, entities, matter, ultimate particles and universe.