SSC & Railway Exams History : Study Notes on Revolt of 1857

General awareness is an important section that can help you get the maximum time You need not perform complex calculation to settle for the correct option so, it is the best to be ready with the facts and figures in advance. For Govt. Exams 2019, important awards, current affairs, history, geography, general science, economy and static GK is the main part. To let you have an information about all important sections of GA, this post is to provide you with one of the important topics “Revolt Of 1857”. Grab the below given important points related to this particular topic.

Study Notes on Revolt of 1857

The revolt of 1857 was the first and the most severe outburst of anger and discontent accumulated in the hearts of Indian people ever since the advent of British following the Battles of Plassey and Buxar. Though the apologists of imperialism dubbed it as a ‘Sepoy Mutiny’, the Indian historians have praised it as the ‘First War of Indian Independence’.

In the words of Nehru: “It was much more than a military mutiny and it rapidly spread and assumed the character of a popular rebellion and The colonial regime hurt the religious sentiments of both the Hindus and Muslims in India and activities of Christian missionaries created suspicion.
• Politically, the arrogance and dictatorial attitude of Lord Dalhousie and his predecessors shocked the traditional rulers of the country. His policy of annexation sent a wave of resentment over the country. The annexation of Awadh for misgovernment was the most dangerous step which put the government in bad faith. The conditions of Indian sepoys, employed in the British army, were heinous and unbearable. Slightest pretext was enough to play havoc, and this was supplied by the introduction of greased cartridges.

ADMINISTRATIVE AND ECONOMIC CAUSES

Annexation of Indian states deprived the Indian aristocracy of the power and position which they were enjoying earlier. Under the British rule all High Posts were reserved for the Europeans.
New land revenue settlements made by the East India Company in the newly-annexed states drove poverty in the ranks or aristocracy and the peasants were the worst affected class due to the heavy assessments and ruthless manner of collection.
• The East India Company destroyed Indian Handicraft and Industry by using its power and made Indian industry an appendage of a foreign exploitative system.
• Further, the Indian Handicraft and Industry was adversely affected due to the loss of its consumers in the country in the form of princes and aristocrats

SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS CAUSES

• Like every conqueror, English rulers of India were rude and arrogant towards the subjects and described the Hindus as barbarians with hardly any trait of culture and civilization, while the Muslims were dubbed as bigots, cruel and faithless.
• There was discrimination on the basis of religion in the administration and Judiciary between the Indian and Europeans.
• Indians were called as ‘nigger’ and ‘Suar’.
• In the Religions Disabilities Act of 1850, provision was made that change of religion did not debar a son from inheriting the property of his father. This was seen by the Indians as an act of conversion to Christianity.
• Further, strange rumours were current in India that Lord Canning is specially charged to convert Indians into Christianity.
• Activities of Christian padris and Bethune towards woman education made Indian’s feel that through education, the British were going to conquer their civilization.

Problems faced by the revolt which make people consider it a failure are:-
• There were some constraints faced by the revolt in terms of
 Lack of spread across the nation
 Not assessing the strength of British
 No quick system of communication leading to lack of coordination
 Lack of broader goal of independence and political vision
 Lack of arms and ammunition
 Limited support from multiple sectors in the society like some intelligentsia actively supported British
• For instance apart from some honourable exceptions like the Rani of Jhansi, Kunwar Singh and Maulvi Ahmadullah, the rebels were poorly served by their leaders. Most of them failed to realize the significance of the Revolt and simply did not do enough.

It cannot be considered a pure historical tragedy because of the following reasons:-

• Despite the sepoys limitations, their effort to liberate the country was a patriotic act, and a progressive step. They showed exemplary courage, dedication and commitment. Thousands of men courted death.

• If the importance of a historical event is not limited to its immediate achievements the Revolt of 1857 was not a pure historical tragedy. It served a grand purpose: a source of inspiration for the national liberation movement which later achieved what the Revolt could not.
• The outbreak of 1857 is the first great and direct challenge to the British rule in India, on an extensive scale. As such it inspired the genuine national movement for the freedom of India from British yoke which started half a century later.
• The Indian people got that experience which enabled them to build the modern Indian national movement on new foundations and with new ideas, and the lessons of 1857 proved inestimable.
• After the revolt British changed some of their administrative policies and tried to focus on divide and rule ,appeasing some communities like princes, muslims etc

Conclusion:-
• The memory of the revolt of 1857, distorted but hallowed with sanctity, perhaps did more damage to the cause of the British rule in India than the Revolt itself.

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