OVERPOPULATION: CAUSES, IMPACT AND PREVENTION
Every nook and corner of India is a clear display of increasing population, whether you are in a metro station, airport, road, highway, shopping mall, market or even in a social and religious gathering, we find all these places overcrowded at any time of the day. Therefore overpopulation can be termed as an undesirable condition where the number of an existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity of Earth. According to the Indian Census carried out in 2011, the population of India was noted down more than 1 billion. This is the second most populous country of the world after China and it has been estimated that India will be the world’s number one populous country surpassing China, by 2025.
The main causes leading to overpopulation of India include higher birth rate than death rate, slow fall in fertility rate, better medical facilities, depletion of precious resources, early marriage of girls, poverty, illiteracy, age-old cultural norm under which sons are considered the bread earners of the families. These obsolete thoughts put considerable pressure on the parents to produce children till a male child is born, illegal migration under which continual illegal migration from Bangladesh and other underdeveloped countries add up to increase population density.
This cumbersome count of population brings horrible impacts with itself that includes unemployment, manpower utilization under which the number of jobless people is on rise in India due to economic depression and expansion activities, pressure infrastructure resulting in lack of transportation, communication, housing, education, health care, increasing number of slums, overcrowded houses, traffic congestion, scarcity of resources, decreased production and increased costs leading to problem like inflation and inequitable income distribution.
The Government of India, policymakers or leaders should initiate a bold population policy to keep the pace of economic growth of country with the demands of growing population.
Increasing awareness for the use of contraceptives and family planning methods, sex education, encouraging male sterilization and female empowerment, more care centres for the poor and free distribution of contraceptives among the poor can play a major role in controlling population. India’s strengths in the global world in various fields can’t be ignored, whether in science & technology, medicine and health care, business and industry, military, literature & many other appreciating fields. Experts are hopeful that by increasing public awareness and enlisting strict population control norms by Govt will definitely lead the way towards country’s economic prosperity & control of population.
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