SSC has scheduled the SSC CGL Tier 3 exam to be held on 22nd November 2020. SSC CGL Tier 3 Exam is of Descriptive Type where the aspirants have to put all their skills in writing an essay and a letter on certain topics. Let us discuss some important topic and their details which the aspirants can use at the time of writing the essays and letters.
- The economic crisis triggered by the coronavirus pandemic in 2020 gave birth to the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
- While the idea was first proposed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, some of its features are similar to the Swadeshi movement launched on August 7, 1905, to take on the British regime of the time
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced in his address to the nation an economic package of Rs 20 trillion to tide over the coronavirus crisis under the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
- The Package is to cater to various sections including cottage industry, MSMEs, labourers, middle class, industries, among others.
- The clarion call given by the Hon’ble PM to use these trying times to become Atmanirbhar (self-reliant) has been very well received to enable the resurgence of the Indian economy.
- Economy, Infrastructure, System, Demography & Demand are the five pillars of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
- According to PM, Shri Narendra Modi, “When India speaks of becoming self-reliant, it doesn’t advocate a self-centred system. In India’s self-reliance; there is a concern for the whole world’s happiness, cooperation and peace.”
Union budget of India
- Also referred to as the annual financial statement in article 112 of the Constitution of India, it is the annual budget of the Republic of India.
- The government of India presents this budget on the first day of February and materialise it before the beginning of the new financial year in April.
- Financial bill and the appropriation bill has to be passed by the Lok Sabha before it can come into effect on first April which is the starting of India’s financial year.
- “Halwa Ceremony “ is conducted every year in which a sweet dish is prepared in large quantities and serve to the officers and support staff who are printing the budget documents.
COVID-19 pandemic and ways to deal with it
- The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China.
- COVID-19 spreads via a number of means, primarily involving saliva and other bodily fluids and excretions.
- Older adults and people who have certain underlying conditions like heart or lung disease or diabetes are at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19 illness.
- The recommended measures of social isolation give the best results in fighting this pandemic.
- Hand hygiene is extremely important to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. The US CDC recommends that people wash hands often with soap and water for at least twenty seconds after you have been in a public place.
- Mental health is often neglected but it is very important to take it seriously and therefore do not hesitate to seek the help of a professional if you do not manage to cope with fear and anxiety on your own
Pandemic and Economy
- The coronavirus recession is an economic recession happening across the world economy.
- The international labour Organisation estimated that an equivalent of 400 million full-time jobs was lost across the world between April and June 2020.
- Global stock markets fell on 24 February 2020 due to the rise in the number of COVID-19 cases outside mainland China.
- Due to the outbreak of this pandemic global conferences, events across technology, fashion and sports are being cancelled or postponed.
- There is a deep monetary impact on the travel and trade industry. The impact is estimated to be in billions and even increasing.
- Scholars have defined two forms of empowerment – economic Empowerment and political empowerment.
- Women’s empowerment is a process of redefining gender roles that allows them to acquire the ability to choose between non-alternatives who have otherwise been restricted from Such an ability.
- Some measures take into account the importance of female participation and equality such as gender parity index or the gender-related development index.
Youth and unemployment
- This is a situation where young people from 15-24 years of age, who are looking for a job are not able to find anything.
- This situation is usually caused by economic and political factors.
- Other than the above to the quality and relevance of education, inflexible labour market and regulations which in turn creates a situation of assistance and dependency are also the main causes of youth unemployment.
- Some of the possible solutions to this are the assistance to youth in the transition to the world of work.
Online games addiction
- Online games addiction aka gaming disorder or internet gaming disorder is caused due to compulsive use of video games resulting in significant impairment to an individual‘s ability to function in other domains of life.
- This addiction can be treated by the use of psychopharmacology, psychotherapy and also with the use of continuing developing treatments.
- Internet gaming disorder is associated with increased anxiety, depression and social phobia.
- This also has physical health-related outcomes like somatisation and sleep disturbances.
- countries like the United Kingdom has also planned to open a treatment centre run by the Centre in Northwest London foundation trust that will initially focus on gaming disorders.
Global Impacts of pollution
- Pollution is the process of making land, water, air or other parts of the environment dirty and not safe or suitable to use.
- This can be done through the introduction of a contaminant into a natural environment, but the contaminant doesn’t need to be tangible.
- Things as simple as light, sound and temperature can be considered pollutants when introduced artificially into an environment.
- Adverse air quality can kill many organisms, including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion.
- Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries.
- Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms.
- The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways.
- Promote measures to reduce pollution from mobile and stationary sources.
- Support environmentally sound policies that reduce energy growth rates, emphasize energy conservation and encourage the use of renewable resources.
- Measures to reduce water pollution from direct point-source discharges and from indirect nonpoint sources
- Policies to reduce the generation and promote the reuse and recycling of solid and hazardous wastes
E-vehicles future in India
- BNEF in its report outlined that electric vehicles will hit 10% of global passenger vehicle sales in 2025.
- Currently, electric vehicles are making up 3% of global car sales.
- The climate risk index 2020 released by the environment think tank ranked India to the fifth spot in the global vulnerability ladder. This means that consideration of electronic vehicles is predictable.
- Having 75 to 80% fewer moving components and less maintenance cost the residents of India will be considering electronic vehicles in future for sure.
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana
- This policy aims to reduce the premium burden on farmers and ensure early settlement of crop assurance claim for the full insured sum.
- This policy also offers a comprehensive insurance cover against the failure of the crop thus helping in stabilising the income of the farmers.
- This policy covers oilseeds, food crop and annual commercial/annual horticulture crops.
- there are around 11 to 12 empanelled insurance companies that are collaborating with this policy released by the prime minister of India.
In general cybercrime may be defined as “Any unlawful act where computer or communication device or computer network is used to commit or facilitate the commission of crime”.
Most cybercrime falls under two main categories
- Criminal activity that targets: Cybercrime that targets computers often involves viruses and other types of malware. Cybercriminals may infect computers with viruses and malware to damage devices or stop them working. They may also use malware to delete or steal data.
- Criminal activity that uses computers to commit other crimes: may involve using computers or networks to spread malware, illegal information or illegal images.
How to protect yourself against cybercrime
- Keeping your software and operating system up to date ensures that you benefit from the latest security patches to protect your computer.
- Anti-virus software allows you to scan, detect and remove threats before they become a problem. Having this protection in place helps to protect your computer and your data from cybercrime
- Be sure to use strong passwords that people will not guess and do not record them anywhere.
- A classic way that computers get infected by malware attacks and other forms of cybercrime is via email attachments in spam emails
Pros and cons of online education
- Online school education provides easy access to the students which makes their education more reliable.
- With increased flexibility students do not hassle while pursuing education.
- The social interaction is isolated and this is one of the major drawbacks of online education.
- Some courses cannot be provided online that is why online school education provides a very restricted field in front of the students. major drawbacks of online education.
- Some courses cannot be provided online that is why online school education provides a very restricted field in front of the students.
- Modern farming means farming with the help of new and advanced techniques and technology. That means farming with the facilities of modern science and technologies.
- Using science and technologies in farming increase total productions.
- Various types of modern farming methods which are used nowadays are agribusiness, intensive farming, organic farming, and sustainable agriculture, etc.
- Modern agricultural systems have been developed with two related goals in mind: to obtain the highest yields possible and to get the highest economic profit possible.
- In pursuit of these goals, six basic practices have come to form the backbone of production: intensive tillage, monoculture, application of inorganic fertilizer, irrigation, chemical pest control, and genetic manipulation of crop plants.
- By monitoring both the positive and negative impacts of modern farming practices, ecologically based alternatives can be developed that protect the health of the soil, air, and water on farms and nearby areas, lower the economic costs of production, and promote viable farming communities around the world.
New education policy 2020
The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020), which was approved by the Union Cabinet of India on 29 July 2020, outlines the vision of India’s new education system. The new policy replaces the previous National Policy on Education, 1986
- It proposes a 4-year multi-disciplinary bachelor’s degree in an undergraduate programme with multiple exit options. These will include professional and vocational areas and will be implemented as follows
- A Higher Education Council of India (HECI) will be set up to regulate higher education. The council’s goal will be to increase gross enrollment ratio
- Schooling to begin from the age of 3 years: The revised policy expands the age group of mandatory schooling from 6-14 years to 3-18 years. This new system will include 12 years of schooling with three years of Anganwadi/ pre-schooling. The existing 10+2 structure of school curriculum will be replaced by a 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively.
- The NEP 2020 puts forward many policy changes when it comes to teachers and teacher education. To become a teacher, a 4-year Bachelor of Education will be the minimum requirement needed by 2030
- The National Testing Agency will now be given the additional responsibility of conducting entrance examinations for admissions to universities across the country, in addition to the JEE Main and NEET.
- Lynching is referred to as the extrajudicial killing By a group of people.
- In India, the Dadri mob lynching 2015 is such case where a mob of villagers attacked the home of a 52-year-old person killing him for suspicion of slaughtering a cow.
- another case of mob lynching in India is the 2020 Palghar mob lynching.
- Goods and services tax is an indirect tax used in India on the supply of goods and services.
- This policy was launched at midnight on 1 July 2017 by the President of India.
- After its launch, this policy has been modified multiple times. In the latest modification, the panel of federal and state finance ministers decided to revise the GST rate on 28 goods and 53 services.
- The single GST includes Central excise duty, services tax, additional customs duty, surcharges, State-level value-added tax etc.
- The government launched this tax scheme to be levied on all transactions such as sale, purchase, barter, lease, or import of goods and other services.
- This is an adverse event resulting from natural processes of the earth examples are floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, storms and other geological processes.
- The international law for example Geneva conventions Requires the countries to take all necessary measures to ensure the protection and safety of people in the situations of risk due to the occurrence of natural disasters.
- Natural disasters also affect political relations with countries and vice
- Between 1995 and 2015 the U.N.’s disaster monitoring system reported that the greatest number of natural disasters occurred in America, China and India.
Agriculture bill 2020
- The Farm Bills 2020 is a combination of three agricultural bills passed by Indian Parliament in September 2020. The bills are Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, 2020, Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020 and Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill 2020.
- They are intended to help small farmers who don’t have means to either bargain for their produce to get a better price or invest in technology to improve the productivity of farms.
- The government has said these reforms will accelerate growth in the sector through private sector investment in building infrastructure and supply chains for farm produce in national and global markets.
- The bill on Agri market seeks to allow farmers to sell their produce outside APMC ‘mandis’ to whoever they want. Farmers will get better prices through competition and cost-cutting on transportation.
- However, this Bill could mean states will lose ‘commissions’ and ‘mandi fees’.
- This is a situation where a species‘ population exceeds and becomes excessive.
- Overpopulation results from an increase in birth, decline in the mortality rate, an increase in immigration or depletion of resources.
- Some of the most dangerous effects of overpopulation are to increase demand for resources, starvation, malnutrition, consumption of natural resources faster than the rate of regeneration etc.
- Overpopulation can be controlled with promoting family planning, making education entertaining, government incentives, and empowerment of women.