General Science Questions for Railway 2018:
Railway Board offers opulent and revered job posts to its aspirants. And it is not every year that we get the notification from Railway offering a good number of vacant seats to the multitude aspirants. But the current year 2018 brought a pleasant surprise with almost 90,000 seats to be filled by the valid candidates. Opportunity is here but you have to welcome it with a provident strategy. The exam will be conducted in the months of April and May 2018.
Q1. Glow worm is
ग्लोवर्म क्या है:
(a) A mollusca / एक मोलस्का
(b) An insect / एक कीड़ा
(c) A worm / एक वर्म
(d) A nematode/ एक नीमेटोड
Sol. Glow-worm is a medium to large sized invertebrate luminous insect, that emits light. The light of the glow-worm larva is given off by small tubes endings around the glow-worms anus, as a product of excretion.
Sol. Spiders belong to a group of animals called “arachnids”. Arachnids are a creature with two body segments, eight legs, no wings or antennae. All spiders are predators and many eat each other. Rest three options are insects. They have six legs, while spider has eight legs. Thus spider is not an insect.
Q3. The type of fruit in which litchi can be placed in-
किस प्रकार के फलों की श्रेणी में लीची को रखा जा सकता है-
(a) Drupe /दृप
(b) Hesperidium / हेसपेरीडियम
(c) Nut /नट
(d) One seeded berry / एक बीज वाली बेरी
Sol. Nut-fruits are unilocular and one seeded and these are developed from bi or multi carpellary syncarpous, superior ovary. Pericarp in these fruits becomes hard or leathery eg. Litchi, cashew nut, trapa etc. In litchi, the single seed is covered by a white translucent fleshy and edible aril.
Q4. Which of the following is the eatable part of turmeric plant?
निम्नलिखित में से क्या हल्दी पौधे का खाद्य योग्य हिस्सा है?
(a) Root / जड़
(b) Stem / तना
(c) Fruit /फल
(d) Flower/ पुष्प
Sol. Turmeric is obtained from the stem of the plant. It is a member of the curcuma botanical group, which is part of a ginger family of herbs, the Zingiberaceae. Its botanical name is Curcuma longa. All curcumas are perennial plants native to southern Asia. They grow in warm humid climates and thrive only in temperatures above 60°F (29.8°C). India, Srilanka, Fiji and Queensland (Australia) all have the climate, which is conducive to grow turmeric.
Q5. Which of the following is not correctly matched-
निम्नलिखित में से क्या सटीक मिलान नहीं है-
(a) Ginger/ अदरक – Rhizome / राइजोम
(b) Saffron/ केसर – Seed / बीज
(c) Opium/अफ़ीम – Opium capsule/ अफीम कैप्सूल
(d) Jute /जूट – Stem / तना
Sol. Saffron is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the “Saffron Crocus”. Saffron is obtained from the style and stigmas of the flower of Crocus sativus.
Q6. Peanut plant is
मूंगफली का पौधा क्या है
(a) Herb / औषधि
(b) Flower/ फूल
(c) Bush /झाड़
(d) None of these/ इनमे से कोई नहीं
Sol. Pea plant is a dicotyledonous herbaceous herb and an annual plant. The pea plant may adapt to a variety of growing conditions, but it prefers cool damp weather with temperature ranging from 60 to 75 degree Fahrenheit. It belongs to a large family of plants, the fabaceae or Leguminosae.
Q7. Cork is obtained from which of the following plant?
कॉर्क को निम्नलिखित में से किस पोंधे से प्राप्त किया जा सकता है?
(a) Dalbergia/ डालबरजिया
(c) Quercus/ क़ुएर्सकस
Sol. Cork is obtained from the bark of the oak tree, whose botanical name is Quercus suber. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Cork consists of irregularly shaped, thin-walled, wax-walled cells.
Q8. Deserts have phreatophytes, i.e., plants that have
रेगिस्तान के फ्रेएटोफैट्स वह पौंधे है, जिनमें
(a) Succulent stem (100-200 mm thick) / रसदार तना(100-200 मिमी मोटा) है
(b) Lipid accumulation (20-30 mg) in leaves/ पत्तियों में लिपिड संचय (20-30 मिलीग्राम)
(c) Long (20-30 ft) tap roots/ लंबी (20-30 फुट) टैप जड़ है
(d) Small (2-3 mm) or spine-like leaves/ छोटी (2-3 मिमी) या रीढ़ की हड्डी जैसी पत्तियां है
Sol. Phreatophyte is a deep-rooted plant that obtains a significant portion of water that is needs from the phreatic zone or the capillary fringe above the phreatic zone. These plants maintain water status which is largely independent of soil water. Their long roots (up to 25-30 metres length) reaches underground to water table to take water.
Q9. The capability of nitrogen use efficiency can be increased in crop production by-
नाइट्रोजन का उपयोग फसल उत्पादन की दक्षता में किसके द्वारा वृद्धि की जा सकती है-
(a) Use of split application / विभाजित आवेदन का उपयोग करें
(b) Use of nitrogen inhibitors/ नाइट्रोजन अवरोधकों का उपयोग
(c) Using the slow release of nitrogen fertilizer/ नाइट्रोजन उर्वरक की धीमी गति से निवारण का उपयोग
(d) All of the above /उपरोक्त सभी
Sol. The capability of nitrogen use efficiency can be increased by all of the given options; frequent use of fertilizer in the split application, use of nitrogen inhibitors and by using the slow release of nitrogen fertilizer. There are various bacteria in various crops which are liable for nitrogen stabilization.
Q10. Blue-green algae are chiefly used as bio-fertilizer in the crop of
नीले-हरे शैवाल को मुख्य रूप से किस फसल में बायो-उर्वरक के रूप उपयोग किया जाता है –
(a) Wheat / गेहूँ
(b) Gram / चना
(c) Paddy / धान
(d) Mustard/ सरसों
Sol. Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae is an example of a biofertilizer, a type of organic fertilizer which contains living organisms naturally occurring inputs like solar energy, nitrogen, and water to ensure soil fertility and plant growth. Blue-green algae are mainly used as biofertilizer in the crop paddy.
Q11. The blood pressure in our body is-
हमारे शरीर का रक्तचाप है-
(a) Lesser than the atmospheric pressure / वायुमंडलीय दबाव से कम
(b) Greater than the atmospheric pressure / वायुमंडलीय दबाव से अधिक
(c) Equal to the atmospheric pressure / वायुमंडलीय दबाव के बराबर
(d) None of the above / उपरोक्त में से कोई भी नहीं
Sol. The normal atmospheric pressure is 760 mm of Hg. But the normal human blood pressure is around 120/80 mmHg only. Actually when a doctor measure our blood pressure the measurement is done in respect of atmospheric pressure. This means that our blood pressure 120mm Hg more than that of atmospheric pressure of that place. On the other hand atmospheric pressure is measured with respect of vacuum, So the actual blood pressure of our body will be 760 + 120 = 880 mm Hg with respect to vacuum.
Q12. What is the basic feature of antigen-
एंटीजन की बुनियादी सुविधा क्या है
(a) It induces formation of haemoglobin / यह हीमोग्लोबिन का निर्माण करती है
(b) It induces formation of antibodies / यह एंटीबॉडी का निर्माण करती है
(c) It destroys insulin / यह इंसुलिन को नष्ट करती है
(d) It acts against the antibodies/ यह एंटीबॉडीज़ के खिलाफ कार्य करती है
Sol. An antigen is usually a foreign protein molecule (in some cases it is a polysaccharide) which enters the body fluids of an animal as part of an infectious agent and is capable of inducing the production of specific antibodies. An antibody is a molecule produced by animals in response to antigen and has the particular property of combining specifically with the antigen which induced its formation. It is a blood protein (globulin) which may make an infected animal immune to a foreign antigen. This response is called the immune response.
Q13. The diameter of white blood corpuscles in human body is, about:
मानव शरीर में श्वेत रक्त कोशिकाओं का व्यास लगभग कितना है:
(a) 0.007 mm /मि.मी.
(b) 0.7 mm /मि.मी.
(c) 0.07 mm/मि.मी.
(d) 0.0007 mm/मि.मी.
Sol. The number of leukocytes in the blood is often an indicator of disease. The normal white blood cell count is 4,000–11,000 per micro litre of blood. They make up approximately 1% of the total blood volume in a healthy adult. An increase in the number of leukocytes over the upper limits is called leukocytosis, and a decrease below the lower limit is called leukopenia. The diameter of W.B.C. in human body is about 0.007 mm.
Q14. In human body most of the digestive process, takes place in-
मानव शरीर में अधिकांश पाचन प्रक्रिया, कहाँ होती है-
(a) Pancreas / अग्न्याशय
(b) Large intestine / बड़ी आँत
(c) Small intestine / छोटी आंत
(d) Stomach / आमाशय
Sol. Digestion begins in the mouth when we chew and swallow and is completed in the small intestine. The small intestine is a long tube loosely coiled in the abdomen (spread out, it would be more than 20 feet long). The small intestine continues the process of breaking down food by using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver.
Q15. लार किसके पाचन में सहायता करती है –
(d) Fat /वसा
Sol. Saliva is a watery substance located in the mouths of man and animals, secreted by the salivary glands. Human saliva is 99.5% water, while the other 0.5% consists of electrolytes, mucus, glycoproteins, enzymes (amylase) and antibacterial compounds such as secretory IgA and lysozyme. The enzymes found in saliva are essential to begin the process of digestion of dietary starches.
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