Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan
Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan is a programme to improve the quality of the school education sector from pre-school to class 12 standard. The Union Budget 2018-19 proposed to treat school education holistically without segmentation from pre-nursery to Class 12. The goal is to improve the school effectiveness and learning opportunities for students, measured in terms of equal opportunities for schooling and equitable learning outcomes. This Abhiyan makes sure that proper implementation of all the schemes is done in all schools across the country.
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Major objectives of Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan
The major objectives of the Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan have been:
- To provide quality education to students and enhance their learning outcomes
- To bridge the Social and Gender Gaps in School Education
- To ensure equity and inclusion at all levels of school education
- Assuring minimum standards set in the schooling provisions;
- Promoting Vocationalisation of education that is to introduce practical subjects for better understanding,
- Support States in the proper implementation of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009;
- Strengthening and up-gradation of SCERTs/State Institutes of Education, teacher training institutes and set up DIET as a nodal agency for teacher training.
Major Features of Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan
A holistic approach to education
- Treat school education holistically from Pre-school to Class 12. There should not be segmentation in levels
- Addition of senior secondary levels and pre-school levels for the first time
- Single and centralised administrative structure leading to the harmonized implementation of reforms
- Flexibility to given to States to help them prioritise their interventions under the Scheme
- An integrated administration looking at ‘school’ as a continuum
Focus on Quality of Education
- The enhanced focus of the scheme is on improving the quality of education at school level by a focus on the two T’s – Teachers and Technology
- Enhanced Capacity Building and learning of Teachers and School Heads
- Focus on strengthening the Teacher Education Institutions like SCERTs and DIETs so that the quality of prospective teachers in the system is improved
- Support will be given to Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan in order to promote Science and Maths learning in schools.
- Support Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat Programme in order to develop foundational skills at the primary level.
- Provision of library grants for every school to be given ranging from Rs. 5000 to Rs. 20000.
Focus on Digital Education
- Support ‘Operation Digital Board’ in all secondary schools to revolutionize education- easy to understand with the help of technology-based learning classrooms
- Enhanced use of digital technology in education at school through smart classrooms, digital boards and DTH channels
- Digital initiatives like UDISE+, Shagun, strengthened
- Strengthening of ICT infrastructure in schools from upper primary to higher secondary level.
Strengthening of Schools
- Transport facility to children across all classes from I to VIII
- Composite school grant increased from Rs. 14,500-50,000 to Rs. 25,000- 1 Lakh and to be allocated on the basis of school enrolment.
- Specific provision for Swachhta activities to be held in school to support ‘Swachh Vidyalaya’
- Improve the Quality of Infrastructure in all Government Schools
Focus on Girl Education
- Upgrade Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas (KGBVs) from Class 6-8 to Class 6-12.
- Self-defence training must be given to girls from upper primary to senior secondary stage
- Commitment to ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’ to focus on girl education
Focus on Skill Development
- Exposure to Vocational Skills or practical knowledge at Upper Primary Level would be extended.
- Vocational education for Class 9-12 must be integrated with the curriculum and students must be taught to be industry oriented.
- Reinforce emphasis on ‘Kaushal Vikas’
Focus on Sports and Physical Education
- Sports Education must be made an integral part of the curriculum
- Every school to be provided with sports equipment at the cost of Rs. 5000 for Primary Schools, Rs. 10,000 for upper primary schools and up to Rs. 25,000 for secondary and senior secondary schools to inculcate and emphasize the relevance of sports.
Focus on Regional Balance
- Promote Balanced Educational Development
- Preference to Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs), LWE affected districts, Special Focus Districts (SFDs), Border areas and the 117 aspirational districts identified by Niti Aayog
The fund sharing pattern for the Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan scheme between Centre and States is in the ratio of 90:10 at present for the 8 North-Eastern States viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim and also the 3 Himalayan States viz. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. It is in the ratio of 60:40 for all other States and Union Territories with Legislature. It is 100% centrally sponsored for those Union Territories without Legislature.