Peninsular Rivers of India
Different from the Himalayan rivers because they are seasonable in their flow (while Himalayan rivers are perennial). They can be divided into two groups:
A. East Flowing Rivers of India (or Delta forming rivers)
- Mahanadi River (858 km): Rises in Raipur distt. in Chhatisgarh. Main tributaries: lb, Seonath, Hasdo, Mand, Jonk, Tel, etc.
- Godavari River (1465 km): Also called Vriddha Ganga or Dakshina Ganga. It is the longest peninsular river. Rises in Nasik. Main tributaries: Manjra, Penganga, Wardha, Indravati, Wainganga, Sabari, etc.
- Krishna River (1327 km): Rises in Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar. Main tributaries: Koyna, Dudhganga, Panchganga, Malprabha, Ghatprabha, Bhima, Tungabhadra, Musi, etc.
- Cauvery River (805 km): It is the largest peninsular river (maximum amount of water). Infact, it is the only peninsular river which flows almost throughout the year. Known as the ‘Ganga of the South’. It rises from the Brahmagir range of Western Ghats. Main tributaries: Hemavati, Lokpawni, Shimsa. It is less seasonal than others as its upper catchment area receives rainfall during summer by the S.W monsoon and the lower catchment area during winter season by the retreating N.E. monsoon. Its 90% – 95% irrigation and power production potential is already being harnessed.
- Swarnarekha River (395 km) and Brahmani (705 km): Rises from Ranchi Plateau.
B. West Flowing Rivers in India
- Narmada River (1057 km): Has only l/10th part in Gujarat. Rises in Amarkantak Plateau and flows into Gulf of Khambat. It forms the famous Dhuan Dhar Falls near Jabalpur. Main tributaries: Hiran, Burhner, Banjar, Shar, Shakkar, Tawa, etc.
- Tapti River (724 km): Rises from Betul distt in MR Also known as twin or handmaid of Narmada. Main tributaries: Purna, Betul, Arunavati, Ganjal, etc.
- Sabarmati River (416 km): Rises from Aravallis in Rajasthan.
- Mahi River (560 km): Rises from Vindhyas in MR
- Luni River (450 km): Rises from Aravallis. Also called Salt River. It is finally lost in the marshy grounds at the head of the Rann of Kuchchh.
- Sharavati is a west flowing river of the Sahyadris. It forms the famous Jog or Gersoppa or Mahatma Gandhi Falls (289 m), which is the highest waterfall in India.