THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute
India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC
REPUBLIC and to
secure to all its citizens:
social, economic and political;
promote among them all
ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.”
constituent assembly …do here by adopt, enact and give to ourselves this
constitution”, signifies the democratic principle that the power is
ultimately vested in the hands of the people. It also emphasizes that the
constitution is made by and for the Indian people and not given to them by any
outside power (such as the British Parliament).
independent. India is internally and externally sovereign – externally free
from the control of any foreign power and internally, it has a free government
which is directly elected by the people and makes laws that govern the people.
She allies in peace and war. The Popular sovereignty is also one of the basic
structures of constitution of India. Hence, Citizens of India also enjoys
sovereign power to elect their representatives in elections held for
parliament, state legislature and local bodies as well.
Preamble by the Forty- second Amendment. It implies social and economic
equality. Social equality in this context means the absence of discrimination
on the grounds only of caste, colour, creed, sex, religion, or language. Under
social equality, everyone has equal status and opportunities. Economic equality
in this context means that the government will endeavour to make the
distribution of wealth more equal and provide a decent standard of living for
all. This is in effect emphasized a commitment towards the formation of a
welfare state. India has adopted a socialistic and mixed economy and the
government has framed many laws to achieve the aim.
preamble by the Forty-second Amendment (1976). It implies equality of all
religions and religious tolerance. India therefore does not have an official
state religion. Every person has the right to preach, practice and propagate
any religion they choose. The government must not favour or discriminate
against any religion. It must treat all religions with equal respect. All
citizens, irrespective of their religious beliefs are equal in the eyes of law.
people of India” and, its last part “give to ourselves this Constitution”
clearly indicate the democratic spirit involved even in the Constitution. India
is a democracy. The people of India elect their governments at all levels
(Union, State and local) by a system of universal adult suffrage; popularly
known as “one man one vote”. Every citizen of India, who is 18 years
of age and above and not otherwise debarred by law, is entitled to vote. Every
citizen enjoys this right without any discrimination on the basis of caste,
creed, colour, sex, religion or education.
of state is appointed on hereditary basis for a lifetime or until he abdicates
from the throne, a democratic republic is an entity in which the head of state
is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. The President of India
is elected by an electoral college for a term of five years. The post of the
President of India is not hereditary. Every citizen of India is eligible to
become the President of the country.