Questions Asked In RRB NTPC 2020 Examination Form Indian National Congress
- Founder of Congress?
- Congress session Headed by Mahatma Gandhi?
- Swaraj word Adopted in which Session Of Congress?
- Congress was formed in which year?
- President of 1st congress session?
- President of 1932 Congress Session?
- President of 1931 Congress session?
Indian National Congress: Notes
- Association of Landholders: Landholders Society (1837), Bengal British India Society (1843). In 1851, the two were merged to form the British Indian Association.
- Bombay Association and Madras Native Association Were established in 1852. They sent petitions suggesting changes in EIC’s charter to End Company’s monopoly of salt and indigo.
- Associations like Poona Sarvjanik Sabha were established to promote reform and political consciousness.
- 1876— Indian Association was founded in Calcutta by Surendranath Banerjee, & Anand Mohan Bose Madras
- Mahajan Sabha and the Bombay Presidency Association were established in 1884.
- In December 1883, the Indian Association of Surendra Nath Bannerjee & Anand Mohan Bose decided to invite prominent public men and associations to discuss questions of general concern. This was referred to as the National Conference (in 1883) and is described as the ‘dress rehearsal’ for the Indian National Congress (INC).
- National Conference & Indian National Union (by A.O Hume in 1884) merged to form the Indian National Congress in 1885
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- Promotion of friendship amongst the countrymen
- Development and consolidation of the feeling of national unity irrespective of race, caste, religion, or provinces
- Formulation of popular demands and presentation before the Government through petitions.
- Training and organization of public opinion.
- Consolidation of sentiments of national unity
- Recording of the opinions of educated classes on pressing problems
- Laying down lines for the future course of action in the public interest
- Early Congressmen had faith in peaceful and constitutional agitation.
- Prayers & petitions were the instruments.
- Congress sessions lasted only for three days a year. Had no machinery to carry on the work in the interval.
- They believed in the goodness of the British nation and believed that all would be well if the British could be acquainted with the true state of affairs in India. Deputations of Indians were sent to inform the British public
- In 1889, a British Committee of INC was founded.
- It demanded mild constitutional reforms. Economic relief, administrative reorganization, and protection of civil rights.
- A strong point made by the nationalists during this phase was about the economic drain of India.
- Political methods of the moderates were constitutional agitations within four walls
- Moderates believed that the British people & parliament wanted to be just lo India but did not know the true state of affairs.
- They derived inspiration from their traditional cultural values wanted to have relations with other countries in terms of quality and self-respect.
- They opposed the Moderates who were considered by them to be servile and respectful to the British.
- They gave a call for passive resistance in addition to Swadeshi & boycott
- Social Reform Movements like Arya Samaj and Theosophical Society gave impetus to political radicalism. The political radicals derived inspiration from their traditional cultural values.
- There were three groups of extremists— The Maharashtra Group (headed by Bal Gangadhar Tilak), The Bengal Group (represented by BC Pal and Aurobindo), and the Punjab group (led by Lala Lajpat Rai)
- Aurobindo published New Lamps for Old in the Indu Prakash in 1853-94. It was the first systematic critique of the Moderates
- Tilak resented any interference by an alien government into the domestic and private life of the people. He quarreled with the reformers over the Age of Consent Bill in 1891.
- Tilak asserted, Swaraj is My Birth Right and I will have it’. He was also the editor of the Maratta (English) and the Kesari (Marathi)
- The realization that the true nature of British rule was exploitative
- International influences and events, which demolished the myth of while/European supremacy. These included:
- Abyssinia’s (Ethiopia) victory over Italy.
- Boer Wars (1899-1802) in which the British faced reverses.
- Japan’s victory over Russia (I905).
- Nationalist movements worldwide.
- Dissatisfaction with the achievements of Moderates.
- Reactionary policies of Curzon such as the Calcutta Corporation Act (1899). the Official Secrets Act (1904), the Indian Universities Act (1904), and the partition of Bengal (1905).
- Existence of a militant school of thought and the emergence of trained leadership.
|1882, 1885||Bombay, Allahabad||W.C.Banerjee||The first session of congress|
|1886||Kolkata||Dada Bhai Naoroji|
|1887||Madras||Badruddin Tayabji||The first session to be presided by a Muslim.|
|1888||Allahabad||George Yule||The first session to be presided by an Englishman.|
|1896||Kolkata||Rahimtulla M Sayani||The National Song, Vande Mataram was sung for the
|1907||Surat||Rash Bihari Ghosh||The INC split into two, one consisting of Moderates, led by Gokhale
and the other consisting of Extremists, led by Tilak.
|1911||Kolkata||Pandit Bishan Narayan Das||The National Anthem, Jana Gana Mana was sung for the
|1916||Lucknow||Ambica Charan Mazumdar||Joint session with Muslim league in which the historic Lucknow pact was signed.|
|1917||Kolkata||Mrs. Annie Besant||The first session to be presided by a Lady.|
|1925||Kanpur||Mrs. Sarojini Naidu||The first session to be presided by an Indian lady.|
|1929||Lahore||Pt Jawaharlal Nehru||The decision to launch a civil disobedience movement to achieve complete independence and to observe 26 Jan as Independence Day
was taken. Nehru became the president for the first time.
|1946||Meerut||Acharya JB Kriplani||Last preindependence session of the INC.|
|1948||Jaipur||Dr Pattabhi Sitaramayya||The first session after Independence.|
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