The High Court is the highest judicial body in a state. As per the Indian constitution, Articles 214-231 deals with the provisions of the High Courts in India. Every High Court in India shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other judges appointed by the President of India. There is no fixed minimum number of judges for the High Courts. The number of judges varies from Court to Court and from State to State as per the requirment. Currently, there are 25 High Courts in India, three having control over more than one State.
Total High Courts in India
The total number of high courts in India is 25. The list High Courts for all states and union territories with the year of establishment has been given below:
|List of High Courts in India|
|Kolkata||1862||West Bengal, Andman & Nicobar Islands||Kolkata ( Bench of port Blair)|
|Bombay||1862||Maharastra, Dadar, & Nagar Haveli. Goa, Daman Diu||Mumbai (Bench at Panaji, Aurangabad and Nagpur)|
|Chennai||1862||Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry||Chennai (Bench at Madurai)|
|Allahabad||1866||Utter Pradesh||Allahabad (Bench at Lucknow)|
|Karnataka||1884||Karnataka||Bengaluru (Bench at Dharwad and Gulbarga)|
|Jammu & Kashmir||1928||Jammu & Kashmir||Sri Nagar & Jammu|
|Punjab & Haryana||1947||Punjab, Haryana , Chandigarh||Chandigarh|
|Guwahati||1948||Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh||Guwahati (Bench at Kohima, Aizawl and Itanagar|
|Rajasthan||1949||Rajasthan||Jodhpur ( Bench – Jaipur)|
|Madhya Pradesh||1956||Madhya Pradesh||Jabalpur (Bench –Indore , Gwalior)|
|Kerala||1958||Kerala & Lakshadweep||Ernakulam|
|Himachal Pradesh||1966||Himachal Pradesh||Shimla|
|Andhra Pradesh||2019||Andhra Pradesh||Amravati|
Appointment of the Judges
The Chief Justice of a High Court is appointed by the President of India after the consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and the Governor of the State.
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Qualifications for the Judges
- In order to be a judge in Hgh court, candidates should be a citizen of India.
- Candidate must have been an advocate in one or more High Courts in India or a judge for at least 10 years in subordinate courts in India.
Tenure of a Judge
Initially, the age of the retirement for the judges of the High Courts was fixed at 60. It was increased to 62 years in 1963 as per the 15th amendment of the Constitution.
Removal of the Judges
- A judge may leave his office by resigning. The judge needs to send the letter of resignation to the President.
- The office would be considered to have been vacated if the person is appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court or is transferred to some other High Court.
- The judge of a High Court can also be removed from its position by the judge of the Supreme Court. The judge of High Court can be removed by the President, if the Parliament passes a motion against the judge by an absolute majority of the members present and voting, both the Houses sitting separately.
- The salary of the Chief Justice of a High Court is rupees 280,000/- per month. Salary of other judges is rupees 250,000/- per month.
Powers and Functions
- Power to issue certain writs: Every High Court of India holds the power to issue writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo-warranto and certiorari for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights or for other purpose.
- Power of Superintendence: Every High Court of India has superintendence over all Courts and Tribunals throughout the state in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction.
- Power to transfer case: If the High Court thinks that a case which is pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law then High Court shall withdraw the case and can either dispose of the case itself or determine the said question of law and return the case to the court from which the case has been so withdrawn together with a copy of its judgement on such question.
- Consultation in the appointment and posting etc. of District Judges: Governor consults the High Court in the appointment, posting and promotion of District Judges. High Court is also consulted in the appointment of other members of the State Judicial Service.
- Other original and appellate powers: Hight Court has original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters as conferred by the Codes of Civil and Criminal Procedure and the Letters of Patent.
Frequently Asked Questions
Q. Which is the oldest High Court in India?
Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court of India. It was established in 1862.
Q. How many high courts are there in India?
Currently, there are 25 High Courts in India.
Q. Which of the states in India share a common High Court?
The states of Punjab and Haryana share a common High Court that is in Chandigarh. The North-Eastern states (Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh) also share the same High Court in Guwahati.
Q When was Andhra Pradesh High Court established?
The High Court of Andhra Pradesh was established by the Presidential order on the 1st of January 2019.