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The first Chipko movement in independent India took place in April 1973 in the upper Alakananda valley, where the government of Uttar Pradesh had allotted a plot of land inside forest territory to a manufacturer of sports goods. The women of the village united under Chandi Prasad Bhatt and many trees were saved by the heroics of the women by ensuring that the forest would remain (7) inviolable unless the men (8) resorted to (9) bloodletting. Other notable green warriors include Sunderlal Bahuguna, a Gandhian activist and philosopher, who was instrumental in (10) garnering the support of Indira Gandhi, in enacting a law to ban the felling of trees in ecologically sensitive forest lands.
1. BEDECK (verb) : सजाना
Synonyms: adorn, array, beautify, bedizen, blazon, caparison, doll up, drape, dress, embellish, emblaze, emboss, enrich, fancify, festoon, garnish, gussy up.
Antonyms: denude, dismantle, blemish, deface, disfigure, mar, scar, spoil.
2. DENIZEN (noun) : निवासी
Meaning: a person, animal, or plant that lives or is found in a particular place.
Synonyms: dweller, habitant, inhabitant, occupant, resident, resider, tenant.
Antonyms: alien, foreigner, nonresident, guest, visitor, defector, emigrant, escaper, evacuee, exile, expatriate, refugee.
3. SOLIDARITY (noun) : एकजुटता
Meaning: unity or agreement of feeling or action, especially among individuals with a common interest; mutual support within a group.
Synonyms: harmony, camaraderie, comradeship, sodality, unanimity, solidarity, congruity, conformity, concordance.
Antonyms: discord, argument, dissent, disharmony, conflict, dissidence, incongruity, antagonism.
4. EPONYMOUS (adjective) : नामस्रोत
Meaning: of, relating to, or being the person or thing for whom or which something is named.
Synonyms: namesake, cognominal, homonymous, swashbuckling, titular.
Antonyms: anonymous, pseudo, unidentified, undisclosed.
5. PIONEER (noun) : प्रथम अन्वेषक
Meaning: a person who is among the first to explore or settle a new country or area.
Synonyms: earliest, first, foremost, headmost, inaugural, initial, leadoff, maiden, original, premier.
Antonyms: late, consequent, ensuing, following, subsequent, penultimate, final, last, latter, terminal, terminating.
6. DECREE (noun) : हुक्मनामा
Meaning: an official order that has the force of law.
Synonyms: directive, edict, fiat, ruling, judgment, resolution, verdict, dictum, manifesto, proclamation, pronouncement, canon.
Antonyms: cancel, countermand, rescind, appeal, entreaty, petition, plea, urging
7. INVIOLABLE (adjective) : अपराजेय
Meaning: not to be violated, criticized, or tampered with
Synonyms: hallowed, sacred, sacrosanct, unassailable, inviolate, pure, privileged, protected, secure, shielded, exempt, immune.
Antonyms: blasphemous, irreverent, profane, sacrilegious.
8. RESORTED (verb) : सहारा लेना
Meaning: turn to and adopt (a course of action, especially an extreme or undesirable one) so as to resolve a difficult situation.
Synonyms: expedient, recourse, resource, makeshift, replacement, stopgap, substitute.
Antonyms: abstain, dodge, avoid, halt, shun, break, recede.
9. BLOODLETTING (noun) : रक्तपात
Meaning: the violent killing and wounding of people during a war or conflict.
Synonyms: massacre, slaughter, bloodbath, carnage, bloodshed, annihilation, decimation.
Antonyms: allopathy, homeopathy, mild.
10. GARNER (verb) : इकट्ठा करना
Meaning: gather or collect (something, especially information or approval).
Synonyms: accumulate, amass, assemble, congregate, corral, gather, group, lump, collate, compile.
Antonyms: disband, disintegrate, dissolve, separate, dismiss, dispel, disperse, dissipate, scatter.
IMPORTANT CHIPKO MOVEMENT FACTS FOR GOVT EXAMS:
- Although the Chipko Movement has its origins in the 18th century Rajasthan, it found momentum in the year 1973, in Uttar Pradesh’s Chamoli District (now in Uttarakhand), when the first ever famous Chipko Movement was made. Another Chipko movement took place near the village Mandal, led by the then environmental fundamentalist and Gandhian activist Chandi Prasad Bhatt.
- According to the biennial State of Forests Report 2017, India registered a marginal increase in forest cover between 2015 and 2017. It was found that the land under forest cover amounted to 7,08,273 square kilometres, which is 21.53% of the geographical area of the country (32,87,569 sq. km).
- Sunderlal Bahuguna, a Gandhian activist and philosopher, coined the Chipko slogan: ‘Ecology is permanent Economy’.
- In 1987, the Chipko movement was awarded the Right Livelihood Award. The Chipko Aandolan is a movement that practised the Gandhian methods of Satyagraha where both male and female activists played vital roles, including Gaura Devi, Sudesha Devi, Bachni Devi and Chandi Prasad Bhatt.
- The Chipko movement’s biggest triumph was in opening the eyes of the people to their rights to forests, and how grassroots activism can influence policy making regarding shared natural resources
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