IMPLEMENTING GADGIL WOULD HAVE REDUCED KERALA HAVOC
The devastation (1) wreaked by the Kerala floods make it (2) amply clear that the state’s political class failed its people by rejecting the Madhav Gadgil Commission recommendations on the preservation of Western Ghats ecosystem. The Gadgil committee had strongly batted for declaring the entire Western Ghats as an ecologically sensitive area, assigning three levels of sensitivity to its different reaches. It had called for a ban on all developmental activities in the highest-(3) vulnerability areas while only some such works were to be undertaken in the other areas, under the strictest regulation. In fact, it had specifically (4) cited the example of the Idukki dam, whose construction engulfed the entire catchment area of the Periyar river in the area, when it talked about how reservoirs in the Western Ghat states were accumulating (5) copious amounts of silt—leading to severely compromised storage capacity—largely because of encroachment and deforestation in the adjoining areas. In the context of the floods, Gadgil, who founded the Centre for Ecological Studies at the Indian Institute of Science, told The Indian Express that activities like stone (6) quarrying which have (7) proliferated in Kerala in violation of existing environmental laws compounded the damage from the floods.
It is not just in Kerala that the political class has ignored environment, ecology and sustainability in its calculations for development. In fact, when all six stakeholder states—Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu—rejected the Gadgil Commission report in 2011, the Union government, instead of (8) foregrounding the concerns the report had highlighted, set up the K Kasturirangan committee to review the Gadgil recommendations in a “(9) holistic and multidisciplinary manner”. In Uttarakhand that faced similarly devastating floods in 2013, there are over 244 proposed and existing hydel projects. While there is a need to harness the hydroelectricity potential, this has to be done responsibly, with ecology and sustainability being the compass. Instead, since the state’s creation in 200, there has been a rush by different governments to announce hydel and other development projects in an area that has not only become vulnerable to landslides through building and tunnelling activity, but also lies in a seismic zone. There is no doubt that development—and the attendant job creation—is as much a governance (10) imperative as a political one. Indeed, as Sunita Narain of the Centre for Science and Environment, who was a member of the Kasturirangan panel, pointed out in a 2014 blog-post, the key question is how policy can “promote development that is sustainable”.
1. WREAK (verb) क्रोध में करना
Meaning: cause (a large amount of damage or harm).
Synonyms: inflict, create, cause, effect, engender, perpetrate, unleash, vent, bestow, deliver, apply, lay on, impose, effectuate.
Antonyms: reward, improve. better, ameliorate, upgrade, refine, enhance, boost.
2. AMPLY (adverb) बहुतायात से
Meaning: enough or more than enough; plentifully.
Synonyms: bounteously, bountifully, free heartedly, generously, handsomely, lavishly, liberally, munificently, openhandedly, unstintingly, well, considerately.
Antonyms: scornfully, obnoxiously, provocatively, coldly, frigidly, belligerently, begrudgingly, grudgingly, parsimoniously, stingily, ungenerously.
3. VULNERABILITY (noun) बेध्यता
Meaning: the state of being left without shelter or protection against something harmful.
Synonyms: exposure, liability, openness, predisposition, susceptibility, defenselessness, helplessness, weakness, danger, jeopardy, peril.
Antonyms: protection, safeguarding, sheltering, shielding.
4. CITE (verb) उदाहरणार्थ प्रस्तुत करना
Meaning: to bring forward or call to another’s attention especially as an example, proof, or precedent.
Synonyms: adduce, instance, mention, quote, exemplify, represent, advert, illustrate, instance, name, refer, specify, corroborate, substantiate, validate.
Antonyms: disregard, forget, ignore, neglect, overlook, pass over, slight.
5. COPIOUS (adjective) प्रचुर
Meaning: abundant in supply or quantity.
Synonyms: abundant, plentiful, ample, profuse, extensive, considerable, substantial, bumper, fulsome, liberal, bountiful, overflowing, abounding, teeming, multiple, multifarious.
Antonyms: niggardly, scanty, sparse, stingy, deficient, inadequate, insufficient, lacking, scarce, unsatisfactory, wanting, bare, mere, minimal, dribbling, trickling.
6. QUARRY (verb) उत्खनन करना
Meaning: cut into (rock or ground) to obtain stone or other materials.
Synonyms: excavate, drill, dig, bore, cut, unearth, extract, delve.
7. PROLIFERATE (verb) तादाद में बढ़ना
Meaning: increase rapidly in number; multiply.
Synonyms: accelerate, accumulate, appreciate, boom, build up, burgeon, escalate, expand, gain, increase, mount, multiply, rise, roll up, spread.
Antonyms: contract, decrease, diminish, dwindle, lessen, recede, wane.
8. FOREGROUND (verb) सर्वप्रमुख स्थान देना
Meaning: to give prominence or emphasis to.
Synonyms: emphasize, spotlight, forefront, highlight.
Antonyms: underemphasize, understate, belittle, disparage, minimize.
9. HOLISTIC (adjective) समग्र
Meaning: relating to or concerned with complete systems rather than with individual parts.
Synonyms: entire, integrated, aggregate, universal, total, complete, whole.
Antonyms: deficient, fragmental, diminished, scattered, partial, reduced, abridged, incomplete.
10. IMPERATIVE (adjective) आदेशात्मक
Meaning: giving an authoritative command; peremptory.
Synonyms: commanding, imperious, authoritative, masterful, autocratic, dictatorial, domineering, overbearing, assertive, firm, insistent, overweening.
Antonyms: discretionary, dispensable, unnecessary, inconsequential, insignificant, nonessential, elective, optional, voluntary.
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