Indian Geography Notes For SSC CGL EXAM


India: Dimensions

Distance from north to south: 3,214 km  
Distance from east to west: 2,933 km 
Length of the coastline:         7,500 km 
Length of the land frontier: 15,200 km 
Total geographic land area: 32,87,263 km2
Percentage of earth surface 2.4 per cent  
covered by India:  

International Boundaries

North –The Himalayan range and Nepal separate India from Tibet. The protected state of Bhutan also lies in the northeast. The boundary line between India and China is called the McMohan Line. 

East- Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh form an enclave around India along with the Boy of Bengal. 

West- In the north-west, India shares a boundary mainly with Pakistan and the Arabian Sea on the west. 
North-west Afghanistan and Pakistan are situated in the north-west of India. 

Some Interesting Facts
1. India occupies the south-central peninsula of Asia. 

2. India consists of the mainland and two groups of islands, namely, Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea (south-east of the mainland), and the Andaman and Nicobar in the Bay of Bengal (in the south-west of the mainland).

3. Kanyakumari, the southern-most tip on the mainland, is situated on the three seas. 
The southern-most point of the Indian Union is the India Point, located on the Andaman and Nicobar island group which is not very far from the Indonesian islands. 

4. Lakshadweep Islands are comparatively less scattered and are nearer to the Indian coast.    

5. India has a very long coastline, approximating in length to the radius of the Earth.
Nine States of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal share the Indian coastline. 

6. India belongs to northern hemisphere, because it is situated totally to the north of the equator. 

7. The southern tip of the Indian mainland misses the equator only by a few degrees. 

8. Six other countries, larger than India are two to five times larger in area. 

9. The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the country are almost the same in degrees, that is, about 30°, but in kilometres, the north-south distance (about 3,200 km) is more than that of the east-west distance (approximately 3,000 km). 

10. The time difference between the two extreme points in the east and west is of 2 hours due to the vast longitudinal extent. 

11. The time along the Standard Meridian of India (82°30ʹE passing through Allahabad is taken as the standard time for the whole country.

12. The tropic of Cancer (23°30ʹN) divides India into almost two equal parts.

13. The northern part is a board region spreading from east to west, consisting of plains and the Himalayan Mountains.

14. The areas to the south of the Tropic and Cancer are triangular in shape, having a base in the north; the land tapers towards the south. It mostly coincides with the peninsular plateau, but also includes the eastern and western coastal strips.  

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