1) The Slave Dynasty
2) Khalji Dynasty
3) Tughlaq Dynasty
4) The SaiyyidDynasty
5) Lodhi Dynasty
Qutubbudin Aibakbegan his reign with the modest title Malik and Siphasalar that had been conferred upon him by Muhammad Ghori.The rise of Qutubuddin roused jealousy of Yildoz of Ghazni.Aibak charged him with exercising undue influence on Mahmud of FerozKhoh and marched against him. In 1208 he even occupied Ghazni and also won over Sultan Mahmud to his own side. During his brief reign of 4 years he did not make any fresh conquests because his entire attention was devoted to the establishment of law and order and strengthening of his army of occupation. Aibak died in 1210 AD.He earned the title of Lakh Baksh.
- The defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan in the second battle of Tarain in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori laid the foundation of Muslim rule in India. After the death of Muhammed Ghori, his slave QutubuddinAibak took the charge and became the first sultan of Delhi.
- For his generosity, he earned the sobriquet Lakh-Bakhsh (giver of Lakhs.).
- He built two mosques-Quwat-ul-Islam at Delhi and Adhai din kaJhonpra at Ajmer.
- He started the construction of QutubMinar which was dedicated to famous Sufi Saint KhwajaQutubuddinBakhityar Kaki.
- He died while playing Polo in the year 1210.
Iltutmish was the greatest of the slave kings. He was the real founder of the Sultanate. At the time of Qutubbudin’s death he was the governor of Badaun.He made Delhi the capital of his empire. The reign of Iltutmish saw the decline of Lahore and the rise of Delhi. Delhi gradually became the greatest centre of learning and culture in India. The Delhi Sultanate owes the outlines of its administrative system to Iltutmish.He organized the Revenue and Finance depts. Although Iltutmish had many sons but all of them were incompetent. He appointed his daughter Raziya as his successor.
- He divided his empire into Iqtas, known as Iqtadari system under which land were assigned to nobles and officers in lieu of salary.
- He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital – the two basic coins of the Sultanate period.
- He built the Hauz-i-Shamsi reservoir in Mehrauli in 1230.
- He completed the QutubMinarin the year 1231-32.
- He formed Turkan-i-Chahalgani or Chalisa (a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles).
- He saved Delhi Sultanate from the wrath of Chengiz Khan, the Mongol leader.
Raziya is the first and the last woman ruler of medieval India. She assumed the title of sultan and did her best to play the part of a man. Her reign lasted for 3 years and six months. She aimed at removing the uncalled for interference and influence of Turkish chiefs on administration. She discarded Purdah and began to adorn the attire of the male. Raziya tried to concentrate power in her own hands and succeeded. This provoked serious opposition that took the shape of a protest against her.
- She succeeded her father Iltutmish in 1236.
- She was the first lady to sit on the throne of Delhi.
- She was the first and the last Muslim lady who ever ruled India’.
- Her promotion of Jalaluddin Yakut, an Abyssinian, to the important offices provoked the Turkish officers.
- She was killed along with her husband Altunia by Bahram Shah, a son of Iltutmish.
Alauddin Masud Shah also met the same fate of Bahram Shah who succeeded Raziya’s successor. Bahram Shah was weak and incompetent ruler and was overthrown by the nobles after a brief reign of 2 years.
Balban sat on the throne of Delhi in 1266 AD and adopted the name of GhiyasuddinBalban. With his accession the line of rulers of the family of Iltutmish ended. He started the era of strong centralized government. He increased the power and position of sultan.Balban ascended the throne in 1266. He introduced Persian ceremonies and etiquettes in his court and allowed no manner of levity here. He suppressed the revolts in the Doab and Oudh and tracked down elements in Rohilkhand.The Mongols invaded again in 1279 and 1285 but were defeated and driven away. In 1286 the Mongols reappeared and this time Prince Muhammad was killed. Balban could not recover from this tragedy and died in 1286 AD.
- His real name was Baharuddin.
- He crushed the power of Turkan-i-Chahalgani or Chalisa which stabilized the Sultanate rule.
- He established the military department Diwani-i-Arz.
- For defeating the Mongols he got the sobriquet Ulagh Khan
He was succeeded by his grandson Kaikubad.He was inefficient and incapable. JalaluddinKhilji placed himself at the head of a powerful faction and routed the Turkish amirs. He eventually murdered Kaikubad and seized the throne.
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