Important Geography Notes

Desert:-
Desert is a large landmass of the earth. They make up 20 % of the earth’s landmass. It is a dry, sandy region of little rainfall, extreme temperature & sparse vegetation.
E.g:-
1) The Sahara Desert (Africa)
2)  The Atacama Desert (Chile)
3) The Gobhi Desert (Magnolia)
4) The Thar Desert (India)


Mountains:-
It is a natural elevation of the earth’s surface. They may be arranged in a line known as range.
E.g.:-
1) Himalayan Mountain (Asia)
2) Mt. Kilimanjaro (Africa)
3) Mt. Fujiyama (Japan)
4) Rocky Mountain (N. America)
Islands:-
An island is a piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Islands are volcanic in origin or formed from coral reef. 
E.g.:-
Largest island – Greenland
Largest River Island – Majoly (Assam)
Largest Populated Island – Java (Indonesia)
Island shared by 3 countries – Borneo.
Oceans:-
Oceans are the major body of saline water covering 71% of Earth’s surface.
The waves, tides & ocean currents are the 3 chief movements of ocean waters. The 4 major oceans are the 
1) Pacific Ocean 
2) Atlantic Ocean
3) Indian Ocean 
4) Arctic Ocean 
5) Southern Ocean
1) Pacific ocean – Largest ocean
Mariana Trench , 
– the deepest part of the earth lies in Pacific ocean. 
– It is circular in shape.
– Asia, Australia, N & S America surround it.
2. Atlantic Ocean- 2nd Largest Ocean
– It is ‘S’ shaped.
– Flanked by N. & S. America on Westside& Europe & Africa on the east.
The coastline of Atlantic is indented and this irregular and indented coastline provides ideal location for natural harbors & ports. Hence it is the busiest ocean from commercial view point.
3. Indian OceanOnly Ocean named after a country – India.
– Triangular in shape 
Bounded by Asia in the north, Africa in the west & Australia in the East.
4. Southern Ocean – The Southern Ocean as the fourth-largest of the five oceans
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean
5. Arctic Ocean – Located within the Arctic Circle& surrounds N. Pole.
– Connected with Pacific Ocean by a narrow stretch of shallow water known as “Bering Strait”.
– Bound by Northern coasts of N. America & Eurasia. 

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