As you all know, SSC CGL exam is Coming up and English Section plays a very important role in your overall selection. So, we’ve decided to help you with all the tricky and advance scenarios in English Grammar. We’ll keep you informed about such Complex Sentence Structures.
There are six basic kinds of errors in the grammar of a sentence.
☞Error type-1 Subject -verb agreement
☞Error type -2. Errors of modifiers
Modifiers are words / group of words / phrases in one part of sentence , which modify another part of the sentence.
In correct written English ,the modifier has to be kept as close as possible to the word or clause it modifies.
Ex- bruised and battered, Ravi gave his Car to the mechanic.
Bruised and battered , the car was given to the mechanic by Ravi.
☞Errors type -3 errors in the usage of Pronouns .
The pronouns used in a sentence should agree with their antecedents.
☞Error type – 4 error in the tense of the verbs.
☞Error type – 5 errors of parallelism
☞Error type -6 error in the use of singular words/ idioms and phrases.
Proper use of adverbs , prepositions. Conjunctions. Adjectives.
Q.1 With the advent of YouTube, Facebook, and Flickr, many savvy political consultants undertook revolutionary micro-targeting and get-out-the-vote techniques that enabled political candidates with cash-strapped budgets to be able to reach numerous likely voters and succeed in raising large numbers of money from enthusiastic and committed supporters in a short period of time.
A.cash-strapped budgets to be able to reach numerous likely voters and succeed in raising large numbers of money
B.cash-strapped budgets to reach numerous likely voters and be successful in raising large amounts of money
C.cash-strapped budgets to reach numerous likely voters, succeeding in raising large amounts of money
D.cash-strapped budgets to reach numerous likely voters and succeed in raising large amounts of money
E.cash-strapped budgets to be able to reach numerous likely voters and succeed in raising large amounts of money
Explanation: Option(D) is correct
☞The sentence must be constructed such that corresponding consequences of an action are parallel. Specifically, the sentence should read enabled political candidates with cash-strapped budgets to x and y where x and y are parallel.
☞The phrase to be able to z is redundant and should be replaced by to z
☞ The phrase numbers of money should be amounts of money since number is only used when the object in question can be counted and money cannot be counted (i.e., you do not say 1 money, 2 money, 3 money). Note: By comparison, dollars can be counted (i.e., you would say 1 dollar, 2 dollars, 3 dollars) and as a result, we would say: the number of dollars.
a.the phrase to be able to reach is redundant and can be shortened as follows: to reach; large numbers of money is not grammatically correct since money itself cannot be counted and, as a result, amount should be used instead
b.the phrase to reach…and be successful is not parallel
c.this sentence is set up such that succeeding modifies reaching voters instead of being a separate action on its own
d.the phrase is parallel (i.e., to reach…[to] succeed); to be able to reach is replaced by the shorter to reach
e.the phrase to be able to reach is redundant and should be replaced by to reach
Q.2 With his sub-four minute mile Bannister broke a psychological barrier, inspiring thousands of others to attempt overcoming seemingly insurmountable hurdles.
A.inspiring thousands of others to attempt overcoming
B.inspiring thousands of others to attempt to overcome
C.inspiring thousands of others to overcome
D.and inspired thousands of others to attempt to overcome
E.and inspired thousands of others to attempt overcoming
Explanation: Option(D) is correct
In (A) the word ‘inspiring’ seems incorrectly to refer to the word ‘barrier’; also the expression ‘attempt overcoming’ is unidiomatic.
In D, the correct answer, ‘inspired’ is correctly parallel to ‘broke’, and ‘attempt to overcome’ is idiomatic.
Q.3 An analysis of sixteenth century probate inventories in the major English towns show that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups or salt cellars.
A.show that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups or
B.show that some artisans and yeomen even owned silver spoons, cups or
C.show that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups and
D.shows that some artisans and yeomen owned even silver spoons, cups and
E.shows that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups or
Explanation – Option(E) is correct
The subject of the sentence is ‘analysis’ and therefore the verb should be the singular ‘shows’. Hence either D or E must be correct.
The word ‘even’ should be in front of the word which it qualifies. The intention is to express surprise that some artisans owned silver, as indicated in E by putting ‘even’ in front of ‘artisans’, and not surprise at the spoons as implied in D.
In E, the correct answer, the word ‘or’ seems preferable because the artisan or yeoman might own any of the items and not necessarily all the items as would be implied by the use of ‘and’.
Q.4 In archaeological terms the university was a latecomer to the town, which was already centuries old by the time we first hear of the establishment of a community of scholars and teachers in the late 12th Century.
A.which was already centuries old by the time we first hear of the establishment of
B.already centuries old by the time we first hear of its establishment of
C.which was centuries old already when we first hear of the establishment of
D.that was already centuries old by the time we first are hearing of the establishing of
E.that was already centuries old by the time we first hear that they had established
Explanation -Option(A) is correct
There is nothing wrong with the use of ‘which’ in choice A, since the description correctly refers to the work in front of the comma. It is better not t spend time worrying over the choice between ‘that’ and ‘which’ – look for other clear-cut problems.
We can eliminate E because the pronoun ‘they’ does not have an antecedent. We can eliminate D because it is too wordy and uses ‘establishing’ when ‘establishment’ would have been better.
We can eliminate C because ‘already’ is in the wrong place. And finally we can eliminate B because the use of ‘its’ makes the sentence less clear than what we have in A
Q5.The United Nations’ Human Development Index takes into account life expectancy, education, as well as income per person
A.into account life expectancy, education, as well as income per person
B.life expectancy, education, as well as income per person into account
C.into account life expectancy and education, as well as income per person
D.into account life expectancy, and education, and income per person
E.life expectancy, education, and income per person in its account
Explanation : Option(C) is correct
The problem with the original sentence is the list: we need to have an ‘and’ at the right point. We can have a list such as ‘a, b, and c’ when we intend the items to have equal weight.
Or we can have a list such as ‘a and b, as well as c’ if the first two items are to be taken together.
But we cannot have a list like this: a, b, as well as c. Nor can we have ‘a and b and c’. Using this information we can eliminate A, B and D.
Of the remaining choices, C is best as E is awkward and brings in an unnecessary ‘its’.