- Known as the father of Indian renaissance & the first great leader of modern India.
- Influenced by European enlightenment he stressed on reason & human dignity.
- He respects the traditional philosophical system of East but believes that only modern culture would help India to revive.
- Gifted linguist, he knew many languages such as Sanskrit, Persian, English, Arabic, French, Latin, Hebrew etc.
- Ram Mohan Roy wrote a Persian book “Tuhafat-ul-muwahhidin” (Gift to monotheist) in 1809, in which he strongly supported believe in one God (Monotheism).
- He translated the Vedas & Five Upanishads into Bengali
- He set up Atmiya sabha in 1814, Calcutta.
- He strongly opposed idol worship, the rigidity of caste & superstitious rituals.
- He has written, Precepts of Jesus (1820) – He emphasize the moral message of Christ & criticized miracle stories in Bible.
- He described blind imitation of west, but wanted synthesis of best east & west.
- In 1828, he founded Brahma Sabha later Brahma Samaj (1830) to purify Hinduism & to preach monotheism.
- It was based on – Reason, Vedas & Upanishads, monotheism.
- Brahma samaj opposed – caste system, child marriage, sati system, etc.
Work For Women
- Sati-system was Abolished by William Bentinck in 1829.
- He also demanded the right of inheritance & Property for Women.
- He supported dutch watch , watch maker ‘David Hare’ to found Hindu-College 1817.
- He established a vedant college in Calcutta 1825.
- He strongly supported introduction of English education
- He was the pioneer of Indian Journalism & brought Journals in Bengali, Persian, Hindi, English for spreading scientific literacy & political education.
- He started Bengali weekly “Sambad Kaumudi” (1821) which was first Indian newspaper edited, published & managed by Indians.[Language – Bangali]
- He also started Persian Weekly – “Mirat-ul-Akhbar” [Language – Farsi]
Pioneer in Political Agitation:-
- He protested against restrictions on Indian Press in 1824.
- He demanded the abolition of trading rights of east India Company & removal of heavy export duties on Indian goods.
- He also demanded Indianisation of superior services, Judicial equality between Indians & Europeans.
- He was given the title of ‘Raja’ by Mughal emperor Akbar-II & sent to England to plead his case for an increase in pension.
- He died at Bristol in England in 1833.
- Brahma Sabha, established 1828.
- Tarachandra Chakraborty was the first secretary of Brahma Sabha.
- 1830:- Ram Mohan Went to England.
- 1830-1833:- Acharya Ramchandra, 1833- Death(acting head)[Death of Raja Ram – 1833-Bristal]
- 1833-43:- Dwarika Nath Tagore
- 1843:- Devendra Nath Tagore (Father of Rabindranath Tagore)
- Founded ‘Tatvabodhini Sabha in 1839.
- Published ‘Tatvabodhini’ magazine.
- Other members of Tatvabodhini – Rajendra lal Mishra, Akshya Kumar Dutt Ishwar Chand Vidyasagar.
- In 1843 – Devendra Nath Tagore re-organised & revitalized Brahmo Samaj
- 1857:- Keshub Chandra sen joined Brahma samaj & soon popularized it outside Bengal.
- 1866:- 1st Split in Brahma Samaj
- Devendra Nath Tagore → Adi Brahma Samaj
- Keshab Chandra Sen → Brahma Samaj of India → He took important Parting getting the Brahma marriage Act 1872. [Girl’s minimum age – 15 years]
- 1878 – 2nd split → When Keshavchandra got his minor daughter married to maharaja of coach Bihar.
- Sadharan Brahma Samaj → Shivnath Shastri, Anand Mohan Bose
- Brahma Samaj was first missionary moment in India & Keshav Chandra sen was first missionary.