Raja Ram Mohan Roy

  1. Known as the father of Indian renaissance & the first great leader of modern India.
  2. Influenced by European enlightenment he stressed on reason & human dignity.
  3. He respects the traditional philosophical system of East but believes that only modern culture would help India to revive.
  4. Gifted linguist, he knew many languages such as Sanskrit, Persian, English, Arabic, French, Latin, Hebrew etc.

Religious & Philosophical Quest 

  1. Ram Mohan Roy wrote a Persian book “Tuhafat-ul-muwahhidin” (Gift to monotheist) in 1809, in which he strongly supported believe in one God (Monotheism).
  2. He translated the Vedas & Five Upanishads  into Bengali 
  3. He set up Atmiya sabha in 1814, Calcutta.
  4. He strongly opposed idol worship, the rigidity of caste & superstitious rituals.
  5. He has written, Precepts of Jesus (1820) – He emphasize the moral message of Christ & criticized miracle stories in Bible.
  6. He described blind imitation of  west, but wanted synthesis of best east & west.
  7. In 1828, he founded Brahma Sabha later Brahma Samaj (1830) to purify Hinduism & to preach monotheism.
  8. It was based on – Reason, Vedas & Upanishads, monotheism.
  9. Brahma samaj opposed – caste system, child marriage, sati system, etc.

Work For Women

  1. Sati-system was Abolished by William Bentinck in 1829.
  2. He also demanded the right of inheritance & Property for Women.

Modern education

  1. He supported dutch watch , watch maker ‘David Hare’ to found Hindu-College 1817.
  2. He established a vedant college in Calcutta 1825.
  3. He strongly supported introduction of English education 

National Consciousness

  1. He was the pioneer of Indian Journalism & brought Journals in Bengali, Persian, Hindi, English for spreading scientific literacy & political education.
  2. He started Bengali weekly “Sambad Kaumudi” (1821) which was first Indian newspaper edited, published & managed by Indians.[Language – Bangali]
  3. He also started Persian Weekly – “Mirat-ul-Akhbar” [Language – Farsi]

Pioneer in Political Agitation:-

  1. He protested against restrictions on Indian Press in 1824.
  2. He demanded the abolition of trading rights of east India Company & removal of heavy export duties on Indian goods.
  3. He also demanded Indianisation of superior services, Judicial equality between Indians & Europeans.


  1. He was given the title of ‘Raja’ by Mughal emperor Akbar-II & sent to England to plead his case for an increase in pension.
  2. He died at Bristol in England in 1833.
Development of Brahma Samaj
  1. Brahma Sabha, established 1828.
  2. Tarachandra Chakraborty was the first secretary of Brahma Sabha.
  3. 1830:- Ram Mohan Went to England.
  4. 1830-1833:- Acharya Ramchandra, 1833- Death(acting head)[Death of Raja Ram – 1833-Bristal]
  5. 1833-43:- Dwarika Nath Tagore
  6. 1843:- Devendra Nath Tagore (Father of Rabindranath Tagore)
  7. Founded ‘Tatvabodhini Sabha in 1839.
  8. Published ‘Tatvabodhini’ magazine.
  9. Other members of Tatvabodhini – Rajendra lal Mishra, Akshya Kumar Dutt Ishwar Chand Vidyasagar.
  10. In 1843 – Devendra Nath Tagore re-organised & revitalized Brahmo Samaj
  11. 1857:- Keshub Chandra sen joined Brahma samaj & soon popularized it outside Bengal.
  12. 1866:- 1st Split in Brahma Samaj
  13. Devendra Nath Tagore → Adi Brahma Samaj
  14. Keshab Chandra Sen → Brahma Samaj of India → He took important Parting getting the Brahma marriage Act 1872. [Girl’s minimum age – 15 years] 
  15. 1878 – 2nd split  → When Keshavchandra got his minor daughter married to maharaja of coach Bihar.
  16. Sadharan Brahma Samaj → Shivnath Shastri, Anand Mohan Bose
  17. Brahma Samaj was first missionary moment in India & Keshav Chandra sen was first missionary.


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