Tughlaq Dynasty (AD 1320-1413)
- Founded by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, who built the fortified city of Tughlaqabad and made it his capital.
- He was the first sultan to start irrigation works.
- Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq also called the wise fool king on account of five experiments, namely
- (a) Transfer of capital to Daulatabad
- (b) Taxation in Doab
- (c) Qarachil expedition
- (d) Khurasan expedition
- (e) Token currency.
- Muhammad bin Tughlaq was the only Delhi Sultan who had received a comprehensive literary, religious and philosophical education.
- The Sultan set-up a separate department Diwan-i-kohi. He gave Sondhar loans to farmers.
- South Indian states of the Vijayanagara empire, the Bahmani kingdom and the Sultanate of Madura were founded.
- The famous traveller Ibn-Batuta visited his court.
Firoz ShahTughlaq (1351-1388)
- After the death of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq in 1351. Firoz Tughlaq had the unique distinction of being chosen as sultan by the nobles.
- He appointed Khan-i-Jahan Maqbal, a Telugu Brahmin convert as wazir (prime minister)
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq built new towns of Hissar, Firozpur, Fatehabad, Jaunpur and Firozabad (his capital). During his reign, two Ashokan pillars, one from Topara in Ambala and the other from Meerut were brought.
- Built canals, fond of slaves and wrote a book Fatuhat Firozshahi.
- He repaired Qutub Minar when it was struck by lightening.
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq also made Iqtadari system hereditary and imposed new taxes like Kharaj (land tax equal to one-tenth of the producer) and Zakat and Khams (one-tenth of the booty captured in war).
- He made Jizya a separate tax and he imposed this tax upon the Brahmans for the first time in the history of Sultanate.
- He introduced the following coins – Aadha, Bhikh, Shashgani and Hasthragani.
- Timur, Mongol leader of Central Asai, ordered general massacre in Delhi (AD 1398) at the time of Nasiruddin Mahmud (later Tughlaq king).
Before his departure from India, Timur appointed Khizr Khan as governor of Multan. He captured Delhi and founded the Sayyid dynasty in 1414. He tried to consolidate the Delhi Sultanate but in vain. He died in 1421
Successors–Mubarak Shah– Muhammad Shah and Alauddin Alam Shah.
- The Lodhis were the first Afghans to rule India.
- Bahlol Lodhi (AD 1451-1481) founded the dynasty.
- Sikander Lodhi (AD 1418-1517) introduced Gaz-i-Sikandari. (unit for measuring cultivated field).
- He founded Agra in 1504. He wrote the Persian verse ‘Gulrukhi’.
- He was succeeded by Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-1526), who was defeated by Rana Sanga of Mewar. He was also defeated by Babur in April 1526 and led to the establishment of the Mughal rule in India.
- Broke away from Delhi in AD 1397 under Zafar Khan, who assumed the title of Sultan Muzaffar Shah.
- His grandson Ahmed Shah I built a new city Ahmedabad.
- The next prominent ruler was Mahmud Beghra. During his rule, the Portuguese set up a factory at Diu.
- Kashmir was ruled by Hindu rulers until Shamsuddin Shah asserted himself in AD 1339.
- The greatest ruler was Zain-ul-Abidin (AD 1420-70), who is called the Akbar of Kashmir, built Zaina lake, and artificial island in Wular lake.
- Rajput rule restored by Rana Hamir after Alauddin Khalji captured Chittor in AD 1303.
- The greatest was Rana Kumbha who built the Vijay Stambh at Chittor to commemorate his victory over Mahmud Khalji of Malwa.