- Mohammad bin Qasim invaded India in AD 712 and conquered Sindh.
- Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni led about 17 expeditions of India.
- In 1025, he attacked and raided the most celebrated Hindu temple of Somnath, situated on the sea coast of Kathiawar and its ruler was Bhima Deva I
- The period between 1206 and 1526 in the Indian history is known as the “Period of the Sultan Rulers”
- Mohammad Ghori invaded India and was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan in First Battle of Tarain (1191).
- Ghori defeated the Rajput king in Second Battle of Tarain (1192) and laid the foundation of the Muslim dominion in India. He may be considered the ‘founder of Muslim rule’ in India.
- This dynasty is also known as Yamini or Slave dynasty
- After the death of Mohd. Ghori, a struggle for supremacy ensued between Taj-ud-din Yalduz, Nasir-ud-din Qubacha and Qutub-ud-din Aibak.Qutubuddin was successful in thwarting the challenge of his adversaries and was crowned unofficially on 25th June 1206.
- Capital Lahore (initial); Delhi (later)
- The founder of the Slave dynasty. Also called Lakh Baksh because of his generosity.
- Qutub-ud-din Aibak laid the foundation of Qutub Minar, after the name of the famous Sufi saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
- Built Quwwat-ul-Islam (first mosque in India) and Adhai Din ka Jhopra (Ajmer).
- Died while playing Chaugan (polo).
- After Aibak’s death, Aram Shah ascended the throne but he was deposed and Aibak’s son-in-law, Shams-ud-din Iltutmish was crowned the new Sultan.
- Hasan Nizami, the famous historian adorned his court.
Iltutmish (AD 1210-1236)
- Iltutmish belonged to the Ilbari tribe and hence his dynasty was named as Ilbari dynasty.
- Attack of Mongols; formed Turkan-e-Chahalgani or Chalisa (a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles).
- Divided his empire into Iqtas (assignment of land in lieu of salary).
- Introduced 2 types of coins-silver (Tanka) and copper (Jital).
Razia (AD 1236-1240)
- First and last Muslim woman ruler of Medieval India.
- She disregarded Purdah, married Altunia, the Governor of Bhatinda.
- Bahram Shah, son of Iltutmish, killed her.
- She appointed an Abyssinian slave Yakuth as Master of the Royal Horses
Balban (AD 1266-1286)
- Separated Military Department (Diwan-e-Ariz) and Finance Department (Diwan-e-Wazarat).
- He declared that king was the deputy of God (Niyabat-e-Khudai) and shadow of God (Zil-e-Illahi) and introduced the practices of Sijdah or Paibos.
- When Balban died, one of his grandsons Kaiqubad was made the Sultan of Delhi. After four years of incompetent rule, Jalaluddin Khalji captured the throne of Delhi in 1290.
Khalji Dynasty (AD 1290-1320)
- Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji was the first ruler, who reviewed that India cannot be a totally Islamic state.
- Alauddin Khalji His conquests were that of Gujarat ruled by Vaghela King; Ranthambhor, Chittor and Malwa and later to the South (mainly by Malik Kafur).
- He abolished Zamindari in Khalisa land. No eqta was allotted in Doab area.
- Alauddin adopted the policy of Blood and Iron in tackling the Mongols.
- He built Khizrabad, Alai Darwaja and his capital city Siri.
- Also built Hauz Khas in Delhi and added entrance door to Qutub Minar, introduced market reforms.
- Adopted the title of Sikandar-i-Sani.
- Built a permanent army introduced Chehra and Dagh System.
- First Turkish Sultan’ who separated religion from politics.
- His court poets were Amir Khusrau and Mir Hassan Dehlvi.