SOILS IN INDIA
➤➤The entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil. Alluvial soils are found in the Plains of Punjab, Haryana, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal as well as in the plains of Assam and the coastal strips of South India, along the river beds.
➤➤These have been deposited by three important Himalayan river systems– the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
➤➤According to their age alluvial soils can be classified as old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar).
➤➤The Bangar soil has the higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar. It has more fine particles and is more fertile than the Khadar.
➤➤Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile. They contain an adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid, and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops.
➤➤Alluvial soils contain calcareous concretions (kankars) which have been traditionally used for white washing. It forms a good source of raw material for the cement plants.
➤➤These soils are black in colour and are also known as Regur soils.
➤➤This type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over northwest Deccan plateau and is made up of lava flows.
➤➤They are found in Maharashtra, Gujarat, west Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
➤➤The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material. They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture. They are rich in calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash, and lime but poor in phosphoric contents.
➤➤These soils are sticky when wet. They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil. Thus, there occurs a kind of ‘self-ploughing’.
➤➤Black soil is suitable for growing cotton.
➤➤Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘later’ which means brick. The laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall.
➤➤This is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain.
➤➤Humus content of the soil is low because the decomposers, like bacteria, get destroyed due to high temperature.
➤➤These soils are mainly found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and the hilly areas of Odisha and Assam.
➤➤This soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee. i.e. Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala are more suitable for crops like cashew nut.
➤➤The major application of laterite soil is for cutting bricks.
➤➤ARID SOIL (DESERT SOIL)
➤➤They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
➤➤The soil lacks humus and moisture.
➤➤They are generally used in the cultivation of coarse grains like Jowar, Bajra, Ragi and oilseeds.
➤➤red soils are also found in parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.
➤➤Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
➤➤These soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.
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