GA notes : Buddhist councils

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General Awareness is an equally important section containing same weightage of 25 questions in SSC CGL, CHSL, MTS exams and has an even more abundant importance in some other exams conducted by SSC.There are questions asked related to Polity. So you should know important facts related to Indian Polity so that you can score well in General Awareness section.

To let you make the most of GA section, we are providing important facts related to Indian Polity. Also, Railway Exam is nearby with bunches of posts for the interested candidates in which General Awareness is a major part to be asked for various posts exams. We have covered important notes focusing on these prestigious exams. We wish you all the best of luck to come over the fear of General Awareness section

Buddhist councils

बौद्ध संगीति

Since the death of the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, Buddhist monastic communities have periodically convened to settle doctrinal and disciplinary disputes and to revise and correct the contents of the sutras. These gatherings, referred to by historians as ‘Buddhist councils’, are recorded in the Buddhist sutras as having begun immediately following the death of the Buddha and have continued into the modern era.
ऐतिहासिक महात्मा बुद्ध, सिद्धार्थ गौतम के निर्वाण के पश्चात् बौद्ध मठवासी समुदायों ने सैद्धांतिक और अनुशासनात्मक विवादों को सुलझाने तथा सूत्रों की सामग्री को संशोधित करने और उनका बखान करने के लिए समय-समय पर आयोजन किए। इन सम्मेलनों को इतिहासकारों के बौद्ध संगीति कहा जो बौद्ध सूत्रों में दर्ज है क्योंकि इसकी शुरुआत महात्मा बुद्ध के निर्वाण के तुरंत पश्चात् हुआ था तथा आधुनिक युग में भी निरंतर जारी है।

Important Facts regarding Buddhist Councils/बौद्ध संगीति के सन्दर्भ में महत्वपूर्ण तथ्य: 

In total, 6 Buddhist councils were convened.
कुल मिलाकर  6 बौद्ध संगीतियां संचालित की गयी।

1.First Buddhist Council/ प्रथम बौद्ध संगीति :

-It was held soon after the Mahaparinirvan of the Buddha.
यह महात्मा बुद्ध के निर्वाण के तुरंत पश्चात् आयोजित किया था।

-The council was held in the Sattapani cave at Rajgriha.
संगीति, राजगृह की सट्टापनी गुफा में आयोजित की गई थी।

-Around 483 BC under the patronage of King Ajatshatru.
483 ई.पू. राजा अजातशत्रु के संरक्षण के अधीन।

-Its objective was to preserve the Buddha’s sayings (suttas) and the monastic discipline or rules (Vinaya).
इसका उद्देश्य महात्मा बुद्ध के उपदेशों (सूत्र) तथा मठवासी अनुशासन अथवा नियमों (विनय) का संरक्षण करना था।   

2. Second Buddhist Council/ द्वितीय बौद्ध संगीति: 


-It was held at Vaishali.
यह संगीति वैशाली में आयोजित की गई थी।

-Under the patronage of King Kalasoka and the presidency of Sabakami. 
राजा कलासोका के संरक्षण तथा सबाकामी की अध्यक्षता में आयोजन।

-This council settled down the disputes on the Vinaya Pitaka and code of discipline.
इस संगीति द्वारा विनय पिटक विवादों तथा अनुशासन संहिता के मतभेदों को सुलझाया गया।     

3.Third Buddhist Council/ तृतीय बौद्ध संगीति: 


-It was held in 250 BC at Pataliputra. 
यह 250 ई.पूर्व  पाटलीपुत्र में आयोजित की गई थी।

-Under the patronage of King Asoka and the monk  leadership.
राजा अशोक के संरक्षण तथा महंत मोग्गलिपुत्त तिस्स के नेतृत्व में आयोजित हुआ था।

– Its objective was to purify the Buddhist movement, particularly from opportunistic factions which had been attracted by the royal patronage.
इसका उद्देश्य बौद्ध आन्दोलन को विशेषत: शाही संरक्षण द्वारा आकर्षित अवसरवादी गुटों से परिष्कृत करना था।

4.Fourth Buddhist Council/ चतुर्थ बौद्ध संगीति:  


-It was held in 72 AD at Kundalvana, Kashmir.
यह 72 ईस्वीं में कुण्डलवन, कश्मीर में हुई। 

-Under the patronage of Kushan King Kanishka of Kushan Empire. कुषाण साम्राज्य के राजा कुषन सिंह कनिष्क के संरक्षण में हुआ था।

-It was presided by Vasumitra, while Asvaghosa was his deputy. इसकी अध्यक्षता वासुमित्र द्वारा की गयी थी,  जबकि  अश्वघोष उनके सहायक थे।

-This council distinctly divided the Buddhism into 2 sects Mahayana and Hinayana.
इस संगीति के दौरान बौद्ध धर्म दो संप्रदायों,  महायान और हीनयान में बंट गया।

5. Fifth Buddhist Council/ पांचवीं बौद्ध संगीति: 


-It was held in Mandalay, Burma in the year 1871.
यह वर्ष 1871 में बर्मा के मांडले में आयोजित किया गया था। 

-Under the patronage of King Mindon.
राजा मिंडन के संरक्षण में।   

-It was presided over by three Elders, the Venerable Mahathera Jagarabhivamsa, the Venerable Narindabhidhaja, and the Venerable Mahathera Sumangalasami.
इसकी अध्यक्षता तीन गुरुओं- आदरणीय महाथ्रा जगरभिवम्सा,  आदरणीय नरेंद्रभाजाजा और आदरणीय महाथ्रा सुमंगलासामी द्वारा की गयी।

-The chief objective of this meeting was to recite all the teachings of the Buddha and examine them in minute detail to see if any of them had been altered, distorted or dropped.
इस बैठक का मुख्य उद्देश्य बौद्ध उपदेशों का वर्णन करना तथा उनकी देखकर यह जांच करना कि उनमें से कोई परिवर्तित, विकृत या स्खलित न हो। 

6.Sixth Buddhist Council/ छठी बौद्ध संगीति:  


-It was held in 1954 in Burma at Kaba Aye, Yangoon.
यह 1954 में बर्मा के यांगून में, काबा ए में आयोजित की गयी थी।

-Under the patronage of Burmese government.
बर्मा सरकार के संरक्षण में।

-It was presided by Prime Minister U Nu.
इसकी अध्यक्षता प्रधान मंत्री यू नु  द्वारा की गई थी। 

-After the Council had officially approved all of the books of the Tipitaka and their commentaries were prepared for printing on modern presses and published in the Burmese script.
संगीति द्वारा त्रिपिटक की सभी पुस्तकों को आधिकारिक तौर पर स्वीकृति दी गयी तथा आधुनिक प्रेसों पर मुद्रण के लिए उनकी टिप्पणियां तैयार की गयी और बर्मा लिपि में प्रकाशित की गयी।

                                 
                         

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