THE MAURYAN EMPIRE
- The Mauryan state had a well-organized civil service.
- Kautilya the foremost political theorist of ancient India advocated that the king should take the advice of his ministry in running the administration.
- Both Kautilya and Megasthanes provided the system of Municipal administration.
- Mantriparishad- Council of ministers to assist the king in administrative matters. It consisted of Purohita, Mahamantri, Senapati and Yuvaraja.
- Amatyas- Civil servants to look after the day-to-day administration.
- Rajukas- Incharge of the district administration, assisted by Yuktas or subordinate officials.
- Gramani- Incharge of the village administration.
- Gopa- Official superior of Gramani and in charge of ten or fifteen villages.
- Nagarika- His chief duty was to maintain law and order.
- Dhamma Mahamatras- To supervise the spread of Dhamma.
- Samharta- The chief of the Revenue Department, was in charge of the collection of all revenues of the empire.
- Adyakshas- To control the retail and wholesale prices of goods and try to ensure their steady supply.
- Dharmathikarin- The chief justice of the Supreme Court at the capital.
Note: Subordinate courts at the provincial capitals and districts worked under Amatya.
- The Mauryan army was well organized and it was under the control of Senapati.
- Megasthenes mentions six boards of five members each to control the six wings of the military.
- The salaries were paid in cash. Kautilya refers to the salaries of different ranks of military officers.
Mauryan Art and Architecture:
- The use of stone started from the time of Asoka.
- The pillars erected by Asoka furnish the finest specimen of the Mauryan art.
- Asokan pillars with inscriptions were found in places like Delhi, Allahabad, Rummindai, Sanchi and Saranath.
- Saranath pillar with four lions standing back to back is the most magnificent.
- (Note:The Indian government adopted this capital with some modifications as its state emblem.)
- Asoka built a number of stupas throughout his empire, example is the famous Sanchi stupa with massive dimensions.
- The caves at Barabar hills near Bodh Gaya are wonderful pieces of Mauryan architecture.