Here we are providing the short notes on English topic (Noun), which will help you to revise whole syllabus day by day…!!!
Shortcut Rule 1 : If the subject is of the third person, singular number (He, She, It) add ‘S’ or ‘es / ies’ to the first form of the verb to make it singular number.
Shortcut Rule 2 : The following verbs are not usually used in the continuous form. See / Smell / Feel / Hear / Notice / Recognize / See / Think / Agree / Believe / Consider / Remember / Hope / Understand / Mind / Suppose / Hate / Love / Know / Have / Want / Forgive / Keep / Prevent etc. But they may be used in continuous forms in a particular cases.
Shortcut Rule 3 : The present perfect tense should not be used with adverbs indicating past time. Instead the simple past tense should be used.
Shortcut Rule 4 : The present perfect tense with “For or Since” is used to express an action began at some time in the past and is still continuing upto the time of speaking or just finished.
For …………………………period of time (for 2 days / for 10 days / for a long time)
Since …………………………point of time. (Since 1996, Since morning, since yesterday, since last week)
Shortcut Rule 5 :The present perfect continuous Tense” is also used for actions began in the past and are still continuing.
Shortcut Rule 6 : When the first action led to the second action immediately The simple Past Tense + Simple Past Tense are used.
Shortcut Rule 7 : When the first action completed before the second one started, the Past Perfect Tense for the first finished action and the Simple Past Tense for the Second are used.
Shortcut Rule 8 : After negative sentences, the question tag used should be in an ordinary interrogative form.
Shortcut Rule 9 : After Positive Statements, we use the negative interrogative.
Shortcut Rule 10 : When the verb in the principal clause is in a past tense, the verbs in the subordinate clauses are normally in the Past Tense.
Shortcut Rule 11 : When the subordinate clause expresses a universal truth the past tense in the main clause may be followed by a Present Tense.
Shortcut Rule 12 : The Past Tense in the main clause may be followed by any tense after the conjunction “Than” in the subordinate clause.
Shortcut Rule 13 : In Conditional Sentences, to express improbability in the Present, the Simple Past Tense in the if clause and the Present Conditional Tense in the main clause are used.
Shortcut Rule 14 : To express unfulfilled condition in the Past, we should express with “Past Perfect Tense” in the if clause and Perfect Conditional Tense in the Main Clause.
Shortcut Rule 15 : For the interrogative sentences that begin with auxiliary verbs, “if or whether as a connective word in indirect speech.
Shortcut Rule 16 : No other conjunction should be used as a connective word, in indirect speech when the question indirect speech begins with “Why (or) How” question words.
Shortcut Rule 17 : No preposition is used after the verb “told”
Shortcut Rule 18 : The question forms in direct speech should be changed to affirmative sentences in indirect speech.
Shortcut Rule 19 : The verb “Suggest” purpose in indirect speech should be followed by “that clause” with the auxiliary verb “should”
Shortcut Rule 20 : In the absence of an indirect object after “suggest” a gerund form is used.
Shortcut Rule 21 : The verb “Tell” should be used with an object.