Ebola Virus Disease
- An outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has been declared in Uganda after the confirmation of a relatively rare Sudan strain case.
- EVD is a deadly disease with occasional outbreaks that occur mostly on the African continent. It was formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever.
- Ebola virus first appeared in year 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo.
- It most commonly affects people and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).
Ebola Virus Disease Causes
- It is caused by an infection with a group of viruses within the genus Ebola virus:
Tai Forest virus
- Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural Ebola virus hosts.
Ebola Virus Disease Transmission
Animal to Human Transmission occurs through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope or porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest. Human-to-Human Transmission occurs via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with Blood or body fluids of a person who is sick with or has died from Ebola.
Ebola Virus Disease Symptoms
Symptoms may appear anywhere between 2 to 21 days after contact with the virus. EVD symptoms may last with an average of 8 to 10 days. It’s symptoms include Fever, Fatigue, Muscle pain, Body weakness, Headache, Sore throat, Vomiting, Diarrhoea, Symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function, in some cases, both internal and external bleeding.
Ebola Virus Disease Diagnosis
It can be difficult to clinically distinguish Ebola from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever, and meningitis but following diagnostic methods may help confirm that symptoms are caused by Ebola virus infection:
ELISA (antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, etc.
Ebola Virus Disease Vaccines
The Ervebo (rVSV-ZEBOV) vaccine has been highly effective in containing the disease but this vaccine has only been approved to protect against the Zaire strain of the virus.
Ebola Virus Disease Latest Update
An outbreak of Ebola virus has been declared in Uganda after a case was confirmed in Mubende district, in the centre of the country. It is the first time in more than a decade that the Sudan strain has been found in Uganda, which also saw an outbreak of the Zaire strain of Ebola virus in 2019.
Existing vaccines against Ebola have proved effective against the Zaire strain but it is not clear if they will be as successful against the Sudan strain.
Ebola Virus Disease – FAQs
Q. In which country, the recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease has been confirmed?
Ans. It has been confirmed in Uganda.
Q. Is there any vaccine available for Ebola Virus Disease?
Ans. The Ervebo (rVSV-ZEBOV) vaccine has been highly effective in containing the disease but this vaccine has only been approved to protect against the Zaire strain of the virus.
Q. Is diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease possible?
Ans. Yes, it is possible using ELISA and RT-PCR assay.