Directions (1-10): In these questions you have two brief passages with five questions following each passage. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
PASSAGE — I
Two hundred years after Malthus predicted that population growth would overtake food production by a margin of 256 to 9, the simple fact is that food production had always been ahead of the population growth. Malthus’ doomsday prediction simply did not come true due to two major reasons: first, population did not grow geometrically and birth rates in all Western countries fell during the 20- Century, resulting in very slow population growth. Over the past quarter century, birth rates have been falling in the developing countries too. Second, modern agricultural practices and better irrigation have resulted in tremendous growth in food production in almost all parts of the globe, with the notable exception of sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, at the global level, the Malthusian doomsday never befell on us.
India’s population grew by about two and a half times in the past 45 years — from 361 million in 1951 to an estimated 916 million in 1995. But during the same period, India’s food grain production grew by nearly four times — from 51 million tons in 1951 to 191 million tons in 1995. As a result, the per capita food grain availability in India has gone up considerably since the Independence. That is, the Malthusian prediction has not come true even in India.
1. Malthus doomsday prediction did not come true due to two major reasons. They are
(a) rapid growth in population and industrial development
(b) very slow growth in population and modern agricultural practices and better irrigation
(c) increase in per capita income and economic progress
(d) better facilities in health and hygiene
2. In the past forty-five years, India’s population has grown about
(a) three and a half times
(b) one and a half times
(c) five times
(d) two and a half times
3. The food production has always been……………. of population growth.
4. In the developing countries, the birth rate is
5. India’s food production from 1951 to 1995 grew nearly
(a) five times
(b) four times
(c) three times
(d) two times
PASSAGE — II
The world’s oil reserves are expected to run out by the middle of the next century unless oil consumption is reduced, according to a leading petroleum geologist from the U.S. Dr. Craig Bond Hatfield, who is at the University of Toledo, Ohio. He says the 1,000 billion barrels of known global oil reserves are expected to run out by 2036 unless the current 69 — million-barrels-per-day consumption of oil is brought down.
Reserves may last for an extra 21 years if estimates of an additional 550 billion barrels of oil yet to be discovered are taken into account. But “a permanent decline in global oil production is virtually certain to begin within 20 years.” Hatfield believes, “Serious planning is needed to deal with the economic consequences”.
Hatfield’s comments, which appear in an article in the latest issue of the weekly science journal Nature are likely to provoke controversy. The oil industry, while acknowledging that oil reserves are finite, says Hatfield’s comments are too alarmist. Mr. Julian Chisholm, a spokesman for the World Energy Council in London, a consortium of the world’s leading energy suppliers, says the oil industry is bullish. “The general view of the industry and of energy experts is that there is plenty of oil, and real concern about the level of reserves, at least until 2050 if not beyond is unduly alarmist.”
6. Unless consumption is reduced, that oil reserve will run out by the middle of
(a) 20th century
(b) 21st century
(c) 23rd century
(d) 24th century
7. To deal with economic consequences
(a) there should be a cut in the use of oil
(b) serious planning is needed
(c) oil exploration should be geared up
(d) manufacture of vehicles should be controlled
8. The current consumption of oil is…………million barrels.
9. According to industry and energy experts, there is
(a) short supply of oil
(b) adequate supply of oil
(c) plenty of oil
(d) increase in oil use
10. Hetfield’s comment on oil reserve is
(a) not to be taken
(b) to be taken seriously
(c) to be made public in oil countries
(d) to be circulated in all oil producing countries.
Directions (11-15): Choose the option which is the antonym of the word mentioned.
(d) None of these
Sol. It is mentioned in the passage that due to very slow growth in population and modern agricultural practices and better irrigation, Malthus doomsday prediction did not come true.
Sol. two and a half times
Sol. Ahead correctly express the idea.
Sol. In the developing countries, the birth rate is falling.
Sol. India’s food production from 1951 to 1995 grew nearly- four times.
Sol. 21st century
Sol. To deal with economic consequences- serious planning is needed
Sol. current 69 — million-barrels-per-day consumption
Sol. According to industry and energy experts, there is plenty of oil
Sol. Hetfield’s comment on oil reserve is – to be taken seriously
Sol. amusing-causing laughter and providing entertainment.
Sol. Altruism -disinterested and selfless concern for the well-being of others.
Sol. Amalgamate -combine or unite to form one organization or structure.
Sol. Amateur -engaging or engaged in without payment; non-professional.
Sol. Ambiguity -the quality of being open to more than one interpretation; inexactness.