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Chemical Bonding Definition, Types and its Structure

Chemical Bonding Definition

When atoms are attracted to each other and join together to form a molecule, is called the connection between each atom and a chemical bond. The bond “holds together” the atoms in the molecule, ion, or crystal. The bonds can often last until they are broken apart by an external force or energy. When atoms approach one another, their nuclei and electrons interact and tend to distribute themselves in space in such a way that the total energy is lower than it would be in any alternative arrangement. The attractive force that binds two atoms together is known as the chemical bond.

Types Of Chemical Bonding

The type of chemical bonds formed varies in strength and properties. There are 4 primary types of chemical bonds which are formed by atoms or molecules. These types of bonds in chemical bonding are formed from the loss, gain, or sharing of electrons between two atoms or molecules. These types of chemical bonds are as follows:

  1. Ionic Bonds
  2. Covalent Bonds
  3. Hydrogen Bonds
  4. Polar Bonds

Here we are providing you with detailed information on the types of chemical bonding in detail. This will help candidates to understand the various bonds under chemical bonding.

Ionic Bond

The ionic bond is a type of chemical bond that involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another, usually from a metal to a non-metal i.e. Examples include NaCl and Li2O).

  • An ionic compound has full positive and negative charges since electrons are not shared but “stolen” by the more electronegative atom.
  • The atom that loses electrons has a positive charge, while the one that gains electrons has a negative charge.

Covalent Bond

A covalent bond means the sharing of electrons between atoms. Compounds that contain carbon (also called organic compounds) commonly exhibit this type of chemical bonding. The pair of electrons which are shared by the two atoms now extend around the nuclei of atoms, leading to the creation of a molecule.

Hydrogen Bonds

A hydrogen bond is a primarily electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen atom which is covalently bound to a more electronegative “donor” atom or group, and another electronegative atom bearing a lone pair of electrons—the hydrogen bond acceptor. It results from the attractive force between a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom such as an N, O, or F atom and another very electronegative atom.

Polar Bonds

A polar bond is a covalent bond between two atoms where the electrons forming the bond are unequally distributed. This causes the molecule to have a slight electrical dipole moment where one end is slightly positive and the other is slightly negative. Polar bonds are the separating line between pure covalent bonding and pure ionic bonding. Pure covalent bonds (nonpolar covalent bonds) share electron pairs equally between atoms.

Chemical Bonding Structure

The intramolecular forces among the particles to create strong chemical bonds are possible if they hold themselves together in molecules. For the formation of the strong chemical bond, the mutual contribution of electrons requires between the atomic centres. It relay on the electrostatic attraction between the protons in nuclei and the electrons in the orbitals.

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

The capability of an atom, an ion, or a molecule to draw a pair of electrons in a chemical bond is called its electronegativity. This is the chemical bonding structure of an atom, an ion or a molecule where their molecular structure, which denotes only the location of atoms in a molecule but not the electrons, is correspondent to electron-pair geometry. This happens when there are no unique electron pairs nearby the central atom.

Chemical Bonding: FAQ’s

Q. What are the 5 chemical bonds?

Ans: The electrical forces, called chemical bonds, can be divided into five types: ionic, covalent, metallic, van der Waals, and hydrogen bonds.

Q. Which is the strongest bond?

Ans: Covalent Bond is the strongest among all.

Q. Which is the weakest bond?

Ans: Hydrogen Bond is the weakest bond.

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