Biological Diversity Act, 2002: It is an Act of the Parliament of India for conservation of biological diversity in India, and delivers mechanism for reasonable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of traditional biological resources and knowledge. The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 was enacted to meet the obligations under Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to which India is a party.
Salient Features of the Biological Diversity Act 2002
- To control access to biological resources of the nation and equitable share in benefits arising out of the use of biological resources.
- To conserve and sustain use of biological diversity
- To set up National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), State Biodiversity Board (SBB) and Biodiversity Management Committees. (BMCs).
- NBA and SBB are required to consult BMCs in decisions relating to bio resource related knowledge within their jurisdiction.
- To respect and protect knowledge of local communities’ traditional knowledge related 5. to biodiversity.
- To secure sharing of benefits with local people as conservers of biological resources and holders of knowledge, and information relating to the use of biological resources.
- All foreign nationals/organizations require prior approval of NBA for obtaining biological resources and/or associated knowledge for use.
- Indian scientists/individuals require approval of NBA for transferring results of research to foreign nationals/organizations.
- Conservation and development of areas of importance from the standpoint of biological diversity by declaring them as biological diversity heritage sites.
- Protection and rehabilitation of threatened species.
- Involvement of institutions of state government in the broad scheme of the implementation of the Biological Diversity Act through constitution of committees.
- Protect India’s rich biodiversity and associated knowledge against their use by foreign individuals and organizations without sharing benefits arising out of such use and check biopiracy.
- Indian industry needs to give prior intimation to SBB to obtain bioresource. SBB has right to restrict, if found, to violate conservation and sustainable use and benefit sharing.
- Provisions for notifying heritage sites by state government in consultation with local body is there in Biological Diversity Act, 2002.
- The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 seeks creation of national, state and local biodiversity fund, and its use tor conservation of biodiversity.
- In Biological Diversity Act, 2002, Prior approval is needed from NBA for IFKS in any invention in lndia or outside lndia on Bioresource.
Biological Diversity Act 2002: FAQs
Q. When did Biological Diversity Act, 2002 come into force?
Ans. 5th February 2003
Q. What is Indian Biological Diversity Act, 2002?
Ans. An Act to provide for conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components.
Q. What is the main objectives of Biological Diversity Act?
Ans. The main objectives of the Act are conservation, sustainable use and equitable benefit sharing out of the utilization of bioresources.
Q. What is biological diversity?
Ans. Biodiversity is the shortened form of two words “biological” and “diversity”. It refers to all the variety of life that can be found on Earth.
Q. Who defined biological diversity?
Ans. Thomas Lovejoy
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