•Called the Vardha Proposal and Leaderless Revolt.
•The resolution was passed on Aug.8, 1942, at Bombay. Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’.
•On Aug 9, the Congress was banned and its important leaders were arrested
•The arrests provoked indignation among the masses and, there being no program of action, the movement became spontaneous and violent. Violence spread throughout the country.
•The movement was however crushed.
The Indian National Army:
•Founded by Rasbehari Bose with Captain Mohan Singh
•S.C.Bose secretly escaped from India in Jain 1941, and reached Berlin. In July 1943, he joined the INA at Singapore. There, Rasbehari Bose handed over the leadership to him.
•The soldiers were mostly raised from Indian soldiers of the British army who had been taken prisoners by the Japanese after they conquered S.E.Asia.
•Two INA head quarters were Rangoon and Singapore (formed in Singapore).
•INA had three fighting brigades named after Gandhiji, Azad and Nehru. Rani Jhansi Brigade was an exclusive women force.
The Cabinet Mission Plan (1946):
•The struggle for freedom entered a decisive phase in the year 1945-46. The new Labour Party PM.Lord Attlee, made a declaration on March 15, 1946, that British Cabinet Mission (comprising of Lord Pethick Lawrence as Chairman, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander) will visit India.
•The mission held talks with the INC and ML to bring about acceptance of their proposals
•On May 16, 1946, the mission put towards its proposals. It rejected the demand for separate Pakistan and instead a federal union consisting of British India and the Princely States was suggested
•Both Congress and Muslims League accepted it.
Formation of Interim Government (Sept 2, 1946):
•Based on Cabinet Mission Plan, an interim government consisting of Congress nominees was formed on Sept.2, 1946. J.L.Nehru was its Vice-President and the Governor-General remained as its President.
Jinnah’s Direct Action Resolution (Aug 16, 1946):
•Jinnah was alarmed at the results of the elections because the Muslim League was in danger of being totally eclipsed in the constituent assembly.
•Therefore, Muslim League withdrew its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan on July 29, 1946.
•It passed a ‘Direct action’ resolution, which condemned both the British Government and the Congress (Aug 16, 1946). It resulted in heavy communal riots.
•Jinnah celebrated Pakistan Day on Mar 27, 1947.
Formation of Constituent Assembly (Dec 9, 1946):
•The Constituent assembly met on Dec 9, 1946 and Dr.Rajendra Prasad was elected as its president.
Mountbatten Plan (June 3, 1947):
•On June 3, 1947, Lord Mountbatten put forward his plan which outlined the steps for the solution of India’s political problem. The outlines of the Plan were:
•India to be divided into India and Pakistan.
•Bengal and Punjab will be partitioned and a referendum in NEFP and Sylhet district of Assam would be held.
•There would be a separate constitutional assembly for Pakistan to frame its constitution.
•The Princely states would enjoy the liberty to join either India or Pakistan or even remain independent.
• Aug.15, 1947 was the date fixed for handing over power to India and Pakistan.
•The British govt. passed the Indian Independence Act of 1947 in July 1947, which contained the major provisions put forward by the Mountbatten plan.
Partition and Independence (Aug 1947):
•All political parties accepted the Mountbatten plan.
•At the time of independence, there were 562 small and big Princely States in India.
•Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, the first home minister, used iron hand in this regard. By August 15, 1947, all the States, with a few exceptions like Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh had signed the Instrument of Accession. Goa was with the Portuguese and Pondicherry with the French.