# RRB ALP Stage-2 exam: Physics notes (KINEMATICS)

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If an object moving along the straight line covers equal distances in equal intervals of time, it is said to be in uniform motion along a straight line.

The motion is said to be non-uniform when it covers unequal distances in equal intervals of time, for example, when a car is moving on a crowded street or a person is jogging in a park.

Displacement is defined as the change in position in a regular interval of time. Displacement has both magnitude and direction.

The average speed of an object is obtained by dividing the total distance travelled by the total time taken.

Average velocity is defined as the change in position or displacement (∆x) divided by the time intervals (∆t), in which the displacement occurs.

In case the velocity of the object is changing at a uniform rate, then average velocity is given by the arithmetic mean of initial velocity and final velocity for a given period of time.

It is a measure of the change in the velocity of an object per unit time.

If the velocity of an object changes from an initial value u to the final value v in time t, the acceleration a is,

The acceleration is taken to be positive if it is in the direction of velocity and negative when it is opposite to the direction of velocity. The SI unit of acceleration is m s⁻².

If an object moves in a circular path with uniform speed, its motion is called uniform circular motion.

**UNIFORM MOTION**If an object moving along the straight line covers equal distances in equal intervals of time, it is said to be in uniform motion along a straight line.

**NON UNIFORM MOTION**The motion is said to be non-uniform when it covers unequal distances in equal intervals of time, for example, when a car is moving on a crowded street or a person is jogging in a park.

**DISPLACEMENT**Displacement is defined as the change in position in a regular interval of time. Displacement has both magnitude and direction.

**AVERAGE SPEED**The average speed of an object is obtained by dividing the total distance travelled by the total time taken.

**AVERAGE VELOCITY**Average velocity is defined as the change in position or displacement (∆x) divided by the time intervals (∆t), in which the displacement occurs.

In case the velocity of the object is changing at a uniform rate, then average velocity is given by the arithmetic mean of initial velocity and final velocity for a given period of time.

**ACCELERATION**It is a measure of the change in the velocity of an object per unit time.

If the velocity of an object changes from an initial value u to the final value v in time t, the acceleration a is,

The acceleration is taken to be positive if it is in the direction of velocity and negative when it is opposite to the direction of velocity. The SI unit of acceleration is m s⁻².

- If an object travels in a straight line and its velocity increases or decreases by equal amounts in equal intervals of time, then the acceleration of the object is said to be uniform. E.g The motion of a freely falling body.
- An object can travel with non-uniform acceleration if its velocity changes at a non-uniform rate. For example, if a car travelling along a straight road increases its speed by unequal amounts in equal intervals of time, then the car is said to be moving with non-uniform acceleration.

**UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION**If an object moves in a circular path with uniform speed, its motion is called uniform circular motion.

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