GA Notes:"SOCIAL REFORMERS AND SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS" For Railway & SSC Exams 2018

Dear Students,


General Awareness is an important section that can help you grab the maximum marks in a competitive exam in the minimum time. You need not perform complex calculation to settle for the correct option so, it's the best to be prepared with the facts and figures in advance so as to score to the maximum in this section. For Railway Group-D Exam 2018, important awards, current affairs, history, geography, general science, economy and Static GK is occupying the major part. To let you have an information about all important sections of GA, this post is to provide you with one of the important topic related to Indian Polity on Chief Minister of State. Grab the below given important points related to this particular topic and score well in the examination.

SOCIAL REFORMERS AND SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS

Social reformars like Raja Rammohan Roy, Swami Dayanand Sarawathi and Swami Vivekananda were responsible for the social and cultural awakening in India. Various movements started by them introduced important changes in social and religious life of the people of India.
Let us discuss some important socio-religious reform movements-

Raja Rammohan Roy and the Brahmo Samaj:


  • In order to purify Hinduism and to preach monotheism Raja Rammohan Roy established the Brahmo Samaj at Calcutta in 1828 . 
  • Popularly known as the “Maker of Modern India” and “Father of Modern India”, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, a social and educational reformer, was an idealist who contributed immensely in eradicating social evils prevalent in the society during the 18th century.
  • He is considered as the first ‘modern man of India’.
  • He was a pioneer of socio-religious reform movements in modern India.
  • In 1815, he established the Atmiya Sabha.
  • Later, it was developed into the Brahmo Sabha in August 1828.
  • The work of the Atmiya Sabha was carried on by Maharishi Debendranath Tagore (father of Rabindranath Tagore), who renamed it as Brahmo Samaj.
  • Raj Rammohan Roy is most remembered for helping Lord William Bentinck to declare the practice of Sati a punishable offence in 1829.
  • He also protested against the child marriage and female infanticide. 
  • He favored the remarriage of widows, female education and women’s right to property.
  • In 1817, he founded the Hindu College along with David Hare, a missionary. He also set up schools for girls.
  • Rammohan Roy started the first Bengali weekly Samvad Kaumudi and edited a Persian weekly Mirat-ul-akhbar.



Henry Vivian Derozio and the Young Bengal Movement:


  • Henry Vivian Derozio was the founder of the Young Bengal Movement.
  • His followers were known as the Derozians and their movement the Young Bengal Movement.
  • They attacked old traditions and decadent customs. 
  • They also advocated women’s rights and their education.



Swami Dayanand Saraswathi and the Arya Samaj:


  • The Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswathi at Bombay in 1875.
  • His motto was “Back to the Vedas” because he believed the Vedas were the source of true knowledge.
  • He started the Suddhi movement to bring back those Hindus who had converted to other religions to its fold. 
  • He wrote the book Satyartha Prakash which contains his ideas.
  • The first Dayanand Anglo-Vedic (DAV) School was founded in 1886 at Lahore.



Prarthana Samaj:


  • The Prarthana Samaj was founded in 1867 in Bombay by Dr. Atmaram Pandurang. 
  • It was a reform movement within Hinduism and concentrated on social reforms like inter-dining, inter-marriage, widow remarriage and uplift of women and depressed classes. 
  • Justice M.G. Ranade and R.G. Bhandarkar joined it in 1870 and infused new strength to it. 
  • Justice Ranade promoted the Deccan Education Society.



Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna Mission:


  • The original name of Swami Vivekananda was Narendranath Dutta and he became the most famous disciple of Shri Ramkrishna Paramahamsa.
  • He founded the Ramkrishna Mission at Belur in Howrah in 1897.
  • He condemned the caste system and the current Hindu emphasis on rituals and ceremonies.
  • Swami Vivekananda participated at the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago (USA) in September 1893 and raised the prestige of India and Hinduism very high.
  • Vivekananda preached the message of strength and self reliance.



Theosophical Society:


  • The Theosophical Society was founded in New York (USA) in 1875 by Madam H.P. Blavatsky, a Russian lady, and Henry Steel Olcott, an American colonel.
  • Their main objectives were to form a universal brotherhood of man without any distinction of race, colour or creed and to promote the study of ancient religions and philosophies.
  • They established their headquarters at Adyar in Madras in 1882. 
  • Later in 1893, Mrs. Annie Besant arrived in India and took over the leadership of the Society after the death of Olcott. 
  • Mrs. Annie Besant founded the Central Hindu School along with Madan Mohan Malaviya at Benaras which later developed into the Banaras Hindu University.



Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar:


  • Pandit Ishwar Chandra was a great educator, humanist and social reformer.
  • Vidyasagar founded many schools for girls. 
  • He helped J.D. Bethune to establish the Bethune School. 
  • He founded the Metropolitan Institution in Calcutta.
  • He protested against child marriage and favoured widow remarriage which was legalised by the Widow Remarriage Act (1856).



Jyotiba Phule and Satyashodak Samaj:


  • Jyotiba Phule belonged to a low caste family in Maharashtra.
  • In 1873 he founded the Satyashodak Samaj to fight against the caste system. 
  • He pioneered the widow remarriage movement in Maharashtra and worked for the education for women.
  • Jyotiba Phule and his wife established the first girls’ school at Poona in 1851.

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