Important Polity Questions for SSC & Railway Exam 2018: 7th July

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Q1.The salary of the Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court :
मुख्य न्यायाधीश और सुप्रीम कोर्ट के अन्य न्यायाधीशों का वेतन:
(a) cannot be reduced under any circumstances/ किसी भी परिस्थिति में कम नहीं किया जा सकता है
(b) can be reduced by Parliament by a two-thirds majority/ संसद के दो तिहाई बहुमत द्वारा कम किया जा सकता है.
(c) can be reduced during the national emergency/ राष्ट्रीय आपातकाल के दौरान कम किया जा सकता है
(d) can be reduced during the financial emergency/ वित्तीय आपातकाल के दौरान कम किया जा सकता है
Show Answer
Sol.Article 125 of the Indian constitution leaves it to the Indian parliament to determine the salary, other allowances, leave of absence, pension, etc. of the supreme court judges. However, the parliament cannot alter any of these privileges and rights to the judge's disadvantage after his/her appointment.The Financial Emergency provided under Article 360. It provides that if the President is satisfied that the financial stability or credit of India or any of its part is threatened; he may declare a state of Financial Emergency. The President may ask the States to reduce the salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons in government service.

Q2.Judicial Review means :
न्यायिक समीक्षा का अर्थ है:
(a) the right of the judiciary to advice the President on constitutional matters/ राष्ट्रपति को संवैधानिक मामलों पर सलाह देने के लिए न्यायपालिका का अधिकार
(b) the power of the judiciary to pronounce upon the constitutionality of laws passed by the Legislature and orders issued by the Executive/ न्यायपालिका द्वारा पारित कानूनों की संवैधानिकता और कार्यकारी द्वारा जारी आदेशों पर घोषणा करने के लिए न्यायपालिका की शक्ति
(c) the right of the Parliament to ask the judiciary to review its own judgement in view of the popular resentment/ संसद द्वारा न्यायपालिका के किसी फैसले (असंतोष के संदर्भ में) की समीक्षा के लिए पूछने का अधिकार
(d) none of the above/ उपरोक्त में से कोई भी नहीं
Show Answer
Sol.Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary. A court with authority for judicial review may invalidate laws and governmental actions that are incompatible with a higher authority: an executive decision may be invalidated for being unlawful or a statute may be invalidated for violating the terms of a constitution. Judicial review is one of the checks and balances in the separation of powers: the power of the judiciary to supervise the legislative and executive branches when the latter exceed their authority.

Q3.The Central Government can legislate on a subject in the State List :
केंद्र सरकार राज्य सूची में किसी विषय पर कानून बना सकती है:
(a) if the Parliament passes a resolution / यदि संसद एक प्रस्ताव प्रस्तुत करती है
(b) if the President issues an ordinance to this / अगर राष्ट्रपति यह करने के लिए एक अध्यादेश जारी करता है
(c) the Supreme Court grants necessary authority to the Parliament/ संसद के लिए सुप्रीम कोर्ट का आवश्यक अधिकार अनुदान
(d) the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by two-thirds majority declaring that particular subject in the State list to be of national importance/ राज्य सूची में राष्ट्रीय महत्व विषय का विशेष महत्त्व के लिए राज्य सभा दो-तिहाई बहुमत से एक प्रस्ताव पारित करती है 

Show Answer
Sol.Though under ordinary circumstances the Central Government does not possess power to legislate on subjects enumerated in the State List, but under certain special conditions the Union Parliament can make laws even on these subjects.
 In the National Interest (Art.249), Under Proclamation of National Emergency (Art.250),  By Agreement between States (Art. 252),  To Implement Treaties (Art. 253) , Under Proclamation of President’s Rule (Art.356)

Q4.In Parliament, the chief spokesman of the government on matters of general policy is the :
संसद में, सामान्य नीति के मामलों पर सरकार के मुख्य प्रवक्ता हैं:
(a) Speaker/स्पीकर
(b) Prime Minister/ प्रधान मंत्री
(c) Minister of Parliamentary Affairs/ संसदीय मामलों के मंत्री
(d) Home Minister/ गृह मंत्री
Show Answer
Sol.The Prime Minister of India, as addressed in the Constitution of India, is the chief of the government, chief adviser to the president, head of the council of ministers and the leader of the majority party in the parliament. The prime minister leads the executive of the Government of India.The prime minister is the senior member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system.The Prime Minister is responsible for the real administration of the country. He is regarded as the chief administrator in India.He is the chief spokesman of the Government of India. It is the duty of the Prime Minister to keep the President informed of all the decisions of the Council of Ministers from time to time. 

Q5.Which one of the following has been wrongly listed as a Directive principle?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा निर्देश सिद्धांत के रूप में अनुचित ढंग से सूचीबद्ध किया गया है?
(a) provision of adequate means of livelihood for all the citizens/ सभी नागरिकों के लिए आजीविका के पर्याप्त साधनों का प्रावधान
(b) provision of employment facilities to all able-bodied persons/ सभी सक्षम व्यक्तियों को रोजगार सुविधाओं का प्रावधान
(c) protection of workers, especially children/ विशेष रूप से बच्चों, श्रमिकों की सुरक्षा
(d) securing of equal pay for equal work to both men and women/ पुरुषों और महिलाओं दोनों के समान काम के लिए बराबर वेतन की सुरक्षा
Show Answer
Sol.Part IV, Articles 36-51 of the Indian constitution constitutes the Directive Principles of State Policy which contain the broad directives or guidelines to be followed by the State while establishing policies and laws. The legislative and executive powers of the state are to be exercised under the purview of the Directive Principles of the Indian Constitution.
The Directive Principles are divided into the following three categories:Socialistic Directives,Gandhian Directives,Liberal Intellectual Directives. 

Q6. Which one of the following financial power is not enjoyed by the Governor?
राज्यपाल द्वारा निम्नलिखित में से किस वित्तीय शक्ति का आनंद नहीं लिया जाता है?
(a) all the demands for grants are presented before the State Legislature on the recommendation of the Governor/ राज्यपाल की सिफारिश पर राज्य विधानमंडल से पहले सभी मांगों के लिए अनुदान प्रस्तुत करना.
(b) he is incharge of the Contingency Fund of the State and can make advances out of it to meet unforeseen expenditure/ वह राज्य के आकस्मिक निधि का प्रभारी है और अप्रत्याशित व्यय को पूरा करने के लिए इसे आगे बढ़ा सकता है.
(c) the supplementary grants, if any, are presented before the State Legislature on the recommendation of the Governor/ राज्यपाल की सिफारिश पर राज्य विधानमंडल में प्रस्तुत कोई अनुपूरक अनुदान.
(d) he can order the reduction of salaries and allowances of the State civil servants during the President's rule in the State/ राष्ट्रपति के शासन के दौरान राज्य लोक सेवक के वेतन और भत्ते को कम करने का आदेश दे सकता है.
Show Answer
Sol.The Governor has also financial powers and functions. No money-bill can be originated in the State Legislature without the recommendation of the Governor. In every year, the budget is laid before the State Legislature by the Governor. No proposals for taxation or expenditure can be made without the approval of the Governor.

Q7.Which one of the following legislative powers of the State Council of Ministers has been wrongly listed?
मंत्रियों की राज्य परिषद की निम्नलिखित विधायी शक्तियों में से कौन सा अनुचित ढंग से सूचीबद्ध किया गया है?
(a) it summons and prorogues the session of either or both the Houses of the State Legislature/ यह राज्य विधानमंडल के दोनों या दोनों सदनों के सत्र को बुलाता है और स्थगित करता है
(b) it determines the business and time-table of the State Legislature/ यह राज्य विधानमंडल के व्यापार और समय सारणी निर्धारित करता है.
(c) most of the important bills are introduced in the State Legislature by the Council of Ministers/ अधिकांश महत्वपूर्ण बिल राज्य विधानमंडल में मंत्रियों की परिषद द्वारा पेश किए जाते हैं
(d) none of the above/ उपरोक्त में से कोई भी नहीं
Show Answer
Sol.The governor summons the sessions of both houses of the state legislature and prorogues them. The governor can even dissolve the Vidhan Sabha. These powers are formal and the governor while using these powers must act according to the advice of the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister.

Q8.Which one of the following categories of emergency has not been declared so far?
निम्नलिखि आपातकालीन श्रेणियों में से कौन सा अभी तक घोषित नहीं किया गया है?
(a) national emergency/ राष्ट्रीय आपातकाल
(b) emergency due to break down of constitutional machinery/ संवैधानिक मशीनरी के विफल होने से आपातकाल
(c) financial emergency/ वित्तीय आपातकाल
(d) none of the above/ उपरोक्त में से कोई भी नहीं
Show Answer
Sol.Financial Emergency Under Article 360. If the President is satisfied that there is an economic situation in which the financial stability or credit of India is threatened, he or she can declare financial emergency. Such an emergency must be approved by the Parliament within two months. It has never been declared. 

Q9.The subjects on which both the Centre and State Governments can legislate are contained in
जिन विषयों पर केंद्र और राज्य सरकार दोनों कानून बना सकते हैं वे ____में शामिल हैं.
(a) the Union List / संघ सूची
(b) the State List/ राज्य सूची
(c) Concurrent List / समवर्ती सूची
(d) Residuary List/ अवशिष्ट सूची
Show Answer
Sol.The Concurrent List or List-III(Seventh Schedule) is a list of 52 items (though the last item is numbered 47) given in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India.It includes the power to be considered by both the central and state government.

Q10. 'Education' which was initially a state subject was transferred to the Concurrent List by the : 
'शिक्षा' जो शुरू में एक राज्य विषय थी,  समवर्ती सूची में किस संशोधन द्वारा स्थानांतरित की गई थी: 
(a) 24th Amendment /24 वां संशोधन
(b) 25th Amendment /25 वां संशोधन
(c) 42nd Amendment/42 वां संशोधन
(d) 44th, Amendment /44 वां, संशोधन
Show Answer
Sol.Through the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 Five subjects were transferred from State to Concurrent List. They are:
Education , Forests , Weights & Measures , Protection of Wild Animals and Birds , Administration of Justice

Q11.The Vice-President of India can be removed from his office before the expiry of his term if :
भारत के उपराष्ट्रपति को उनके कार्यकाल की समाप्ति से पहले उनके कार्यालय से हटाया जा सकता है यदि:
(a) the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by a majority of its members and the Lok Sabha agrees with the resolution/ राज्य सभा के बहुमत द्वारा पारित संकल्प और लोक सभा उस संकल्प के साथ सहमत होता है तो.
(b) if the Supreme Court of India recommends his removal/ अगर भारत के सुप्रीम कोर्ट की सिफारिश पर उन्हें हटाये.
(c) the President so desires/ राष्ट्रपति की इच्छा पर
(d) none of the above/ उपरोक्त में से कोई भी नहीं
Show Answer
Sol.The Constitution states that the Vice-President can be removed by a resolution of the Rajya Sabha passed by an effective majority (50% of effective strength of house, here effective strength equals the total number strength minus the number of vacancies) and a simple majority (50% of total members who are present and voting) of the Lok Sabha (Article 67(b)).But no such resolution may be moved unless at least 14 days' advance notice has been given. Notably, the Constitution does not list grounds for removal. No Vice-President or ex officio Vice-President has ever faced removal proceedings. 

Q12.Which one of the following functions of the Vice-President as ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha has been wrongly listed ?
राज्यसभा के कार्यकारी अध्यक्ष के रूप में उपराष्ट्रपति के निम्नलिखित कार्यों में से कौन सा अनुसचित ढंग से सूचीबद्ध किया गया है?
(a) he presides over the meetings of the Rajya Sabha and conducts its business/ वह राज्यसभा की बैठकों की अध्यक्षता करता है और कार्यों का आयोजन करता है.
(b) he protects the privileges of the members of Rajya Sabha/ वह राज्य सभा के सदस्यों के विशेषाधिकारों की रक्षा करता है
(c) he can dissolve the Rajya Sabha/ वह राज्यसभा को भंग कर सकते हैं
(d) he acts as the spokesman of Rajya Sabha before the President and the Lok Sabha/ वह राष्ट्रपति और लोकसभा के समक्ष राज्यसभा के प्रवक्ता के रूप में कार्य करता है
Show Answer
Sol.The Vice-President of India is the second-highest constitutional office in India after the President.Article 63 of Indian Constitution states that "there shall be a Vice-President of India." The Vice-President acts as President in the absence of the President due to death, resignation, impeachment, or other situations. 

Q13.The value of votes of the MLAs for the election of the President is different in order to :
राष्ट्रपति के चुनाव के लिए विधायकों के वोटों का मूल्य अलग-अलग है:
(a) give greater weight to highly populated states/ अत्यधिक आबादी वाले राज्यों को अधिक महत्व देना
(b) safeguard the interests of smaller states/ छोटे राज्यों के हितों की रक्षा
(c) keep the total value of the MLAs votes less than the total value of MPs votes/ संसद के सदस्य के वोटों का मूल्य विधान सभा के सदस्यों के वोटों के मूल्य से कम मूल्य रखने के लिए.
(d) maintain uniformity in the scale of representation of the different states/ विभिन्न राज्यों के प्रतिनिधित्व के पैमाने में एकरूपता बनाए रखें
Show Answer
Sol.The value of votes cast by elected members of the state legislative assemblies and both houses of parliament are determined by the provisions of article 55(2) of the Constitution of India. As Per the 84th Amendment, the 1971 census is used, and will continue to be used until 2026.  

Q14.The Right against exploitation in the Fundamental Rights has been given to
मौलिक अधिकारों में शोषण के खिलाफ _______को अधिकार दिया गया है
(a) children/ बच्चों
(b) labourers/ मजदूर
(c) govt. servants/ सरकारी नौकर
(d) legislators/ विधायकों
Show Answer
Sol.Fundamental Rights are the basic rights of the common people and inalienable rights of the people who enjoy it under the charter of rights contained in Part III(Article 12 to 35) of Constitution of India.The right against exploitation, given in Articles 23 and 24, provides for two provisions, namely the abolition of trafficking in human beings and Begar (forced labour), and abolition of employment of children below the age of 14 years in dangerous jobs like factories, mines, etc.

Q15.The President can declare national emergency : 
राष्ट्रपति राष्ट्रीय आपातकाल घोषित कर सकते हैं:
(a) only in case of foreign attack/ केवल विदेशी हमले के दौरान
(b) only in case of armed rebellion/ केवल सशस्त्र विद्रोह के दौरान
(c) if he is satisfied that a great threat exists to the security of India either due to war or external aggression or armed rebellion/ यदि वह संतुष्ट है कि युद्ध या बाहरी आक्रामकता या सशस्त्र विद्रोह के कारण भारत की सुरक्षा के लिए एक बड़ा खतरा मौजूद है.
(d) none of the above/ उपरोक्त में से कोई भी नहीं
Show Answer
Sol.National emergency can be declared on the basis of external aggression or armed rebellion in the whole of India or a part of its territory. Such an emergency was declared in India in 1962 (China war), 1971 (Pakistan war), and 1975 (declared by Indira Gandhi).

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