Biology Questions for Railway & SSC CGL Exam 2018: 11th June

Dear Students,

Railway Board offers opulent and revered job posts to its aspirants. And it is not every year that we get the notification from Railway offering a good number of vacant seats to the multitude aspirants. But the current year 2018 brought a pleasant surprise with almost 90,000 seats to be filled by the valid candidates. Opportunity is here but you have to welcome it with a provident strategy. The exam will be conducted in the month of May 2018. 

रेलवे बोर्ड अपने उम्मीदवारों के लिए भव्य और प्रतिष्ठित कार्य पदों की पेशकश करता है. और हर साल ऐसा नहीं होता है कि हमें रेलवे की ओर से अधिसूचना मिलती है. लेकिन वर्तमान वर्ष 2018 आपके लिए बहुत सुखद वर्ष है क्योंकि इसमें लगभग 90,000 सीटों को वैध उम्मीदवारों द्वारा भरा जाएगा. आपके पास बहुत अच्छा अवसर है और आपको इसे एक बेहतर रणनीति से प्राप्त करना होगा. परीक्षा मई 2018 के महीने में आयोजित की जायेगी.

Q1. In human body most of the digestive process, takes place in- 
मानव शरीर में अधिकांश पाचन प्रक्रिया, कहाँ होती है-
(a) Pancreas /अग्नाशय
(b) Large intestine / बड़ी आंत
(c) Small intestine / छोटी आंत
(d) Stomach / आमाशय
Show Answer
Sol. Digestion begins in the mouth when we chew and swallow and is completed in the small intestine. The small intestine is a long tube loosely coiled in the abdomen (spread out, it would be more than 20 feet long). The small intestine continues the process of breaking down food by using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver.

Q2. The process by which blood is purified in human body is called 
प्रक्रिया जिसके द्वारा मानव शरीर में खून शुद्ध हो जाता है उसे कहा जाता है:
(a) Dialysis / डायलिसिस
(b) Haemolysis  / हैमोलिसिस
(c) Osmosis  /ओसमोसिस
(d) Paralysis  /पैरालिसिस
Show Answer
Sol. Dialysis is a process for removing waste and excess water from the blood and is used primarily as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with kidney failure. Dialysis filters out unwanted substances and fluids from the blood.

Q3. ‘Dialysis’ is related to? 
'डायलिसिस' संबंधित है?
(a) Liver /जिगर
(b) Kidney /गुर्दा
(c) Eyes /आंखें
(d) Brain / मस्तिष्क
Show Answer
Sol. Kidneys remove excess organic molecules from the blood and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism. They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood and remove water-soluble wastes, such as urea and ammonium and they are also responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose and amino acids.

Q4. When kidneys fail to function, there is accumulation of- 
जब गुर्दे कार्य करने में विफल हो जाते हैं, तो इसमें _____का संचय होता है-
(a) Fats in the body / शरीर में वसा
(b) Proteins in the body / शरीर में प्रोटीन
(c) Sugar in the blood / रक्त में शुगर
(d) Nitrogenous waste products in the blood / रक्त में नाइट्रोजनयुक्त अपशिष्ट पदार्थ
Show Answer
Sol. Metabolism refers to all of the body’s chemical process, the digestion of food and the elimination of waste. The main nitrogenous wastes are urea and uric acid. Urea is formed from gluconeogenesis of amino acids. Urea is one of the primary components of urine.

Q5. Which of the following is not the normal function of the human kidney? 
इनमें से कौन सा मानव गुर्दे का सामान्य कार्य नहीं है?
(a) Regulation of water level in the blood / रक्त में पानी के स्तर को नियंत्रित करना
(b) Regulation of sugar level in the blood / रक्त में चीनी के स्तर को नियंत्रित करना
(c) Filter out urea / यूरिया को फिल्टर करना
(d) Secretion of several hormones / कई हार्मोन का स्राव
Show Answer
Sol. (1) The main function of the pancreas is to produce insulin hormones
(2) The pancreas plays an important role in digestion and in regulating blood sugar level in the blood, while other three are the normal function of human kidneys.

Q6. The major chemical compound found in human kidney stones is: 
मानव की गुर्दा पथरी में पाया गया प्रमुख रासायनिक अवयव है:
(a) Urea / यूरिया
(b) Calcium carbonate / कैल्शियम कार्बोनेट
(c) Calcium oxalate / कैल्शियम ऑक्सलेट
(d) Calcium sulphate / कैल्शियम सल्फेट
Show Answer
Sol. Calcium Oxalate is a chemical compound that forms envelope-shaped crystals, known in plants as raphides. A major constituent of human kidney stones is calcium oxalate.

Q7. Enzyme is a- 
एनजाईम क्या है- 
(a) Vitamin / विटामिन
(b) Bacterium / जीवाणु
(c) Bio-catalyst  / जैव उत्प्रेरक
(d) Virus/वायरस
Show Answer
Sol. Enzymes are biological molecules (proteins) that act as biocatalysts and help complex reactions occur everywhere in life. These are basically proteins and perform chemical transformations on organic compounds.

Q8. Which enzyme can catalyze the conversion of glucose to ethanol? 
कौन सा एंजाइम ग्लूकोज को इथेनॉल में परिवर्तित कर सकता है?  
(a) Zymase /जाईमेस
(b) Invertase /इनवरटेज़
(c) Maltase / माल्टेज़
(d) Diastase / डायस्‍टेज
Show Answer
Sol. Zymase is an enzyme complex that catalyzes the fermentation of sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. It occurs naturally in yeasts. Zymase activity varies among yeast strains.

Q9. Production of which one of the following is a function of the liver? 
निम्नलिखित में से किस एक का निर्माण करना लीवर का कार्य है?
(a) Lipase /लाइपेस
(b) Urea/ यूरिया
(c) Mucus /म्यूकस
(d) Hydrochloric acid /हाइड्रोक्लोरिक एसिड
Show Answer
Sol. The liver is the largest gland in human body. It is located in the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm and has two lobes. It is an important digestive organ in human body. Its main function is the production of bite, storage of fat and conversion of harmful ammonia to urea (urea is one of the end products of protein metabolism that is excreted in the urine.)

Q10. Which one of the following is not a digestive enzyme in the human system? 
निम्न में से कौन सा एक मानव तंत्र में पाचन एंजाइम नहीं है?
(a) Trypsin /ट्रिप्सिन
(b) Gastrin / गैस्ट्रीन
(c) Ptyalin / ट्यालिन
(d) Pepsin/ पेप्सिन
Show Answer
Sol. Trypsin, ptyalin, and pepsin are digestive enzymes whose secretion is performed by pancreas, salivary gland and stomach respectively. Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCI) by the parental cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by delta cells of the pancreas.

Q11. An enzyme which helps in the digestion of protein is 
एक एंजाइम जो प्रोटीन की पाचन में मदद करता है-
(a) Urease/ यूरेज़
(b) Sulfatase / सल्फेटेज
(c) Trypsin/ ट्रिप्सिन
(d) Protease  / प्रोटेज़
Show Answer
Sol. Protein digestion begins in the stomach with the action of an enzyme called pepsin. Pepsin is the active protein digesting enzyme of the stomach. Duodenum is the first and shortest segment of the small intestine. In the duodenum, trypsin catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, breaking down proteins into smaller peptides. Enzymes continue to break down polypeptides and peptides into amino acids. As amino acids are very small, they are able to be absorbed through the small intestine lining and into the bloodstream.

Q12. Enzyme that is formed by the hydrolysis of starch to glucose is- 
ग्लूकोज के स्टार्च के हाइड्रोलिसिस द्वारा बनाये जाने वाला एंजाइम कौन सा है - 
(a) Invertase/इंवरटेस
(b) Amylase/एमाइलेस
(c) Dehydrogenase/डिहाइड्रोजनेज
(d) Anhydrase/ऐनहाइड्रेज
Show Answer
Sol. Amylase is present in the saliva of humans and some other mammals, where it begins the chemical process of digestion. Amylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into glucose.

Q13. Which of the following foods will provide the nutrient for the growth of new tissues in the human body?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा खाद्य पदार्थ मानव शरीर में नए ऊतकों के विकास के लिए पोषक तत्व प्रदान
(a) Fruit / फ्रूट
(b) Vegetables /वेजिटेबल 
(c) Cheese /  चीस
(d) Sweets / स्वीट्स 
Show Answer
Sol. Proteins are major components of human body and are more important for growth and repair of tissues. Its main sources are pulses, soyabeans, groundnut, milk, cheese, eggs, food grains etc.

Q14. In the human body, which structure is the appendix attached to? 
मानव शरीर में, कौन सी संरचना से अपेंडिक्स जुड़ा होता है?
(a) The large intestine  /बड़ी आंत
(b) The small intestine / छोटी आंत
(c) The gall bladder / पित्त मूत्राशय
(d) The stomach / आमाशय
Show Answer
Sol. The appendix is a blind-ended tube connected to the Caecumpouch, that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine from which it develops embryologically. The Caecum is pouch-like structure of the colon, located at the junction of the small and the large intestines.

Q15. Enzymes are basically- 
एंजाइम मूल रूप से हैं-
(a) Fats /वसा
(b) Sugars / शुगर्स
(c) Proteins / प्रोटीन
(d) Vitamins/ विटामिन
Show Answer
Sol. Enzymes are biological molecules (proteins) that act as biocatalysts and help complex reactions occur everywhere in life. These are basically proteins and perform chemical transformations on organic compounds.


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