Biology Questions for Railway & SSC CGL Exam 2018 : 14th May

Vitamins & Nutrition Questions

Dear Students,

Railway Board offers opulent and revered job posts to its aspirants. And it is not every year that we get the notification from Railway offering a good number of vacant seats to the multitude aspirants. But the current year 2018 brought a pleasant surprise with almost 90,000 seats to be filled by the valid candidates. Opportunity is here but you have to welcome it with a provident strategy. The exam will be conducted in the months of May 2018. 

रेलवे बोर्ड अपने उम्मीदवारों के लिए भव्य और प्रतिष्ठित कार्य पदों की पेशकश करता है. और हर साल ऐसा नहीं होता है कि हमें रेलवे की ओर से अधिसूचना मिलती है. लेकिन वर्तमान वर्ष 2018 आपके लिए बहुत सुखद वर्ष है क्योंकि इसमें लगभग 90,000 सीटों को वैध उम्मीदवारों द्वारा भरा जाएगा. आपके पास बहुत अच्छा अवसर है और आपको इसे एक बेहतर रणनीति से प्राप्त करना होगा. परीक्षा मई 2018 के महीने में आयोजित की जायेगी.

Q1. Funk invented- 
फंक ने किसका आविष्कार किया था-
(a) Vitamins /विटामिन
(b) Hormones / हार्मोन
(c) Proteins / प्रोटीन
(d) Enzymes / एंजाइम
Show Answer
Sol. Kazimierz Funk is generally credited with being among the first to formulate the concept of vitamins, which he called “vital amines” or “vitamins”. Umetaro Suzuki had in 1910 succeeded in extracting a water-soluble complex of micronutrients from rice bran and had named it “aberic acid”. 

Q2. What are vitamins?
विटामिन क्या हैं? 
(a) Organic compound / कार्बनिक यौगिक
(b) Inorganic compound / अकार्बनिक यौगिक
(c) Living organism / जीवित जीव
(d) None of these / इनमे से कोई नहीं
Show Answer
Sol. Vitamins are organic compounds and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities and must be obtained through the diet.

Q3. Which one of the following groups of compounds is called ‘accessory dietary factor”? 
यौगिकों के निम्नलिखित समूहों में से किसे 'सहायक आहार कारक' कहा जाता है?
(a) Fats / वसा
(b) Hormones / हार्मोन
(c) Proteins / प्रोटीन
(d) Vitamins / विटामिन
Show Answer
Sol. Frederick Gowland Hopkins was the first scientist to elucidate the “accessory food factor,” the idea that food contains trace amounts of substances essential for nutrition. Accessory food factors later came to be called vitamins.

Q4. Which of the following elements is not essential for plant growth? 
पौधे के विकास के लिए निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा तत्व आवश्यक नहीं है
(a) Sodium / सोडियम
(b) Potassium / पोटैशियम
(c) Calcium / कैल्शियम
(d) Magnesium / मैगनीशियम
Show Answer
Sol. Essential elements are classified into following two categories. 
•Macro elements (Major elements) – These are required by the plant in larger quantities. Eg-Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Sulphur (S). 
•Microelements (Minor elements or Trace elements)- These are required by the plant in low quantities. Example are Boron (B), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Molybdenum (Mo), Chlorine (CI), Iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni). 

Q5. Vitamin B5 is called? 
विटामिन B5 को क्या कहा जाता है?
(a)Pantothenic acid / पैंटोथैनिक एसिड
(b)Folic acid / फोलिक एसिड
(c) Ratinol/ रैशनल
(d)Tocopherol / टोकोफेरोल
Show Answer
Sol. Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is found in all living cells within the body.Aside from being critical in manufacturing red blood cells, vitamin B5 also plays a part in producing sex and stress-related hormones produced in the adrenal glands.

Q6. Vitamin B6 is called? 
विटामिन B6 को क्या कहा जाता है?
(a) Niacin/ नियासिन
(b) Tocopherol/  टोकोफेरोल   
(c) Phyridoxin/फईरिडोक्सिन
(d) Ratinol / रैशनल
Show Answer
Sol. Vitamin B6, also called pyridoxine, is a water-soluble nutrient that is part of the B vitamin family. B6 vitamins, help support adrenal function, help calm and maintain a healthy nervous system, and are necessary for key metabolic processes.

Q7. In which category of food is the most amount of calories per unit:- 
भोजन की किस श्रेणी की प्रति इकाई में कैलोरी की मात्रा अधिकतम है:
(a) Vitamins / विटामिन
(b) Fats / वसा
(c) Carbohydrates / कार्बोहाइड्रेट
(d) Proteins / प्रोटीन
Show Answer
Sol. Fats have highest calorie value per unit because of its higher rate of oxidation due to less oxygen. 400 kilocalorie energy is obtained by metabolic oxidation of 1 gm carbohydrate or protein whereas 9.3 k-calorie is received by fats from the same amount. Flora and Fauna, both are a source of fats.

Q8. Apples have special value for heart patients, because they are rich source of- 
सेब का हृदय रोगियों के लिए विशेष महत्व है, क्योंकि यह किसका समृद्ध स्रोत हैं-
(a) Sodium and Potassium /सोडियम और पोटेशियम
(b) Phosphorus and Magnesium /फॉस्फोरस और मैग्नीशियम
(c) Potassium and Phosphorus /पोटेशियम और फास्फोरस
(d) Potassium only / केवल पोटेशियम
Show Answer
Sol. Potassium is an electrolyte, which is a mineral that has an electric charge. It plays an important role in maintaining a healthy heart rhythm through muscle action. Apple trees absorb potassium in a greater amount than any other nutrient, so apples are a rich source of potassium. 

Q9. Vitamin A is called?
विटामिन A को क्या कहा जाता है?
(d) Pyridoxin /पैरीडोक्सिन
Show Answer
Sol. Vitamin A is a term for a large number of related compounds (e.g., retinol, retinal, retinoic acid), which are known as 'retinoids'.

Q10. Which one of the following vitamins and deficiency diseases is wrongly matched? 
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा विटामिन और बीमारियों का गलत मिलान किया गया है?
(a) Calciferol/ कैल्सिफैरोल - Osteomalacia/ अस्थिमृदुता
(b) Niacin/ नियासिन - Pellagra/ पॅलाग्रा
(c) Cobalamin/ कोबालामिन - Pernicious anaemia/ सांघातिक रक्‍तहीनता
(d) Riboflavin/ राइबोफ्लेविन - Beri-beri / बेरी-बेरी
Show Answer
Sol. Beri-beri disease is caused by a deficiency of Vitamin B_1 whose chemical name is Thiamin. Other options are correctly matched. Riboflavin is the chemical name of Vitamin B_2 which is responsible for stomatitis and malnutrition.

Q11. Among the following vegetables, the maximum Vitamin C is found in : 
निम्नलिखित में से किस सब्जी में अधिकतम विटामिन C पाया जाता है
(a) Chilli / मिर्च
(b) Pumpkin / कद्दू
(c) Pea / मटर
(d) Radish/ मूली
Show Answer
Sol. Among the above vegetables, the maximum Vitamin C is found in chilli. Vitamin C present in each 100 gram of chilli, pumpkin, pea and radish is 143. 7, 9, 40 and 14.8 milligram respectively.

Q12. The vitamin which is found in citrus fruits and is necessary for maintaining healthy skin is- 
वह विटामिन कौन सा है जो खट्टे फलों में पाया जाता है और स्वस्थ त्वचा को बनाए रखने के लिए आवश्यक है-
(a) Vitamin A / विटामिन A
(b) Vitamin B / विटामिन B
(c) Vitamin C / विटामिन C
(d) Vitamin D / विटामिन D
Show Answer
Sol. Vitamin ‘C’ occurs in various citrus fruits like lemon, orange, gooseberry etc. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin which is necessary for normal growth and development. Ascorbic acid is the chemical name of Vitamin C. Deficiency of this vitamin causes the disease Scurvy in human.

Q13. The main source of vitamin ‘K’ is- 
विटामिन 'K' का मुख्य स्रोत क्या है-
(a) Spinach/ पालक
(b) Milk / दूध
(c) Ghee  / घी
(d) Pulses / दलहन
Show Answer
Sol. Vitamin A is the major constituent of milk, ghee and is enriched by fats and pulses which are the rich source of protein. Vitamin K is found in the following foods:
Green leafy vegetables( kale, spinach, turnip greens, collards, Swiss chard, mustard greens, parsley, romaine, and green leaf lettuce..)

Q14. Kanchan’ is an improved variety of - 
‘ कंचन ' किसकी एक उन्नत विविधता है - 
(a) Grapes/अंगूर
(b) Indian gooseberry/भारतीय करौदा
(c) Guava/अमरूद
(d) Mango/आम
Show Answer
Sol. The fruits of Indian gooseberry are rich in medicinal properties. It is rich in vitamin C. Kanchan, Krishna and Banarasi are some of its improved verities.

Q15. The best source of Vitamin C is :  
विटामिन सी का सबसे अच्छा स्रोत क्या है:
(a) Apple / सेब
(b) Mango / आम
(c) Goose Berry / करौंदा
(d) Milk /दूध
Show Answer
Sol. Gooseberry, orange, tomato, lemon, papaya, peas, etc. are a rich source of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid). It is an important antioxidant which helps to protect against cancer, heart disease, stress, maintaining a healthy immune system and wound healing process. It is essential for sperm production and formation of collagen. The collagen protein involved in the building and health of cartilage, joints, skin and blood vessel etc.

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