Physics Questions for Railway & SSC CGL Exam 2018

NUCLEAR:

Dear Students,

Railway Board offers opulent and revered job posts to its aspirants. And it is not every year that we get the notification from Railway offering a good number of vacant seats to the multitude aspirants. But the current year 2018 brought a pleasant surprise with almost 90,000 seats to be filled by the valid candidates. Opportunity is here but you have to welcome it with a provident strategy. The exam will be conducted in the months of May 2018. 

रेलवे बोर्ड अपने उम्मीदवारों के लिए भव्य और प्रतिष्ठित कार्य पदों की पेशकश करता है. और हर साल ऐसा नहीं होता है कि हमें रेलवे की ओर से अधिसूचना मिलती है. लेकिन वर्तमान वर्ष 2018 आपके लिए बहुत सुखद वर्ष है क्योंकि इसमें लगभग 90,000 सीटों को वैध उम्मीदवारों द्वारा भरा जाएगा. आपके पास बहुत अच्छा अवसर है और आपको इसे एक बेहतर रणनीति से प्राप्त करना होगा. परीक्षा मई 2018 के महीने में आयोजित की जायेगी.

Q1. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched: 
निम्न में से कौन सा जोड़ सही ढंग से मेल नहीं खाता है
(a) Discovery of Meson / मेसन की खोज – हिडेकी युकावा
(b) Discovery of Positron /पॉज़िट्रान की खोज – सी.डी. एंडरसन और और यू.एफ. हेस
(c) Theory of energy production in the / ऊर्जा उत्पादन की सिद्धांत – H.A. Bethe/ एच.ए. बेथे
(d) Synthesis of transuranic elements/ ट्रांससुरेनिक तत्वों का संश्लेषण – Enrico Fermi/ एनरिको फर्मि
Show Answer
Ans.(d)
Sol. In 1935 Meson particles were discovered by Japanese physicist Hideki Yukawa. Positron, the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron was discovered by C.D. Anderson and U.F. Hess in 1932. In 1939, Hans Bethe described the nuclear reactions that power the sun and other stars. In synthesis of transuranic elements, Glenn T. Scaborg played an important role instead of Enrico Fermi. The fact is that he attempted to prepare a transuranium element in 1934 in Rome but failed to do so.

Q2. Which one of the following is not correct : 
निम्नलिखित में से क्या सही नहीं है:
(a) Theory of evolution was propounded by Charles Darwin./ चार्ल्स डार्विन द्वारा विकास की सिद्धांत का प्रतिपादित किया गया था
(b) The breaking apart of the nucleus of an atom is called fusion. / एक परमाणु के नाभिक के टूटने को संलयन कहा जाता है
(c) ‘Dry ice’ is nothing but solid carbon dioxide. / 'सूखी बर्फ' ठोस कार्बन डाइऑक्साइड के अलावा कुछ भी नहीं है
(d) Telephone was invented by Graham Bell. / ग्राहम बेल द्वारा टेलीफोन का आविष्कार किया गया था
Show Answer
Ans.(b)
Sol. Option (b) is not correct. It is because the breaking apart of nucleus of an atom is called fission not fusion. Fission is a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts.

Q3. One of these particles is claimed to have invented which rebut the Einstein’s theory of relativity. 
इनमें से किस कण के आविष्कार से सापेक्षता के सिद्धांत को दोबारा शुरू किया था?
(a) Microwave Photon/ माइक्रोवेव फोटॉन
(b) Neutrino / न्युट्रीनो
(c) Liquid crystal  / तरल क्रिस्टल
(d) Light emitting diode / प्रकाश उत्सर्जक डायोड
Show Answer
Ans.(a)
Sol. The two physicists Gunter Nimtz and Alfons Stahlhofen of the University of Koblenz, Germany claimed that had propelled microwave photons faster than the speed of light. This would be the direct violation of a key content of Einstein’s special theory of relativity that states that nothing under any circumstance can exceed the speed of light.

Q4. Cyclotrons are used to accelerate: 
साइक्लोट्रॉन का उपयोग किसकी गतिवृद्धि करने के लिए किया जाता है:
(a) Neutrons / न्यूट्रॉन
(b) Protons / प्रोटान
(c) Atoms / परमाणुओं
(d) Ions / आयन
Show Answer
Ans.(b)
Sol. Cyclotron is a machine used to accelerate charged particle such as alpha particles, deuteron, proton etc. up to a very high speed.

Q5. Which one of the following can be used to confirm whether drinking water contain a gamma emitting isotope or not? 
निम्नलिखित में से किस का उपयोग यह पुष्टि करने के लिए किया जा सकता है कि पीने के पानी में एक गामा उत्सर्जक आइसोटोप है या नहीं?
(a) Microscope  / माइक्रोस्कोप
(b) Lead plate / लीड प्लेट
(c) Scintillation counter / स्किंटिलेशन काउंटर
(d) Spectrophotometer / स्पेक्ट्रोफोटोमीटर
Show Answer
Ans.(c)
Sol. Scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation. Radiation on a scintillator material and detecting the resultant light pulses.


Q6. Among the following radiations, which has the highest energy?
निम्नलिखित विकिरणों में से, किसमें उच्चतम ऊर्जा है 
(a) Visible / दृश्यता
(b) X-ray  / एक्स-रे
(c) Ultra-violet  /
(d) Infra-red / इन्फ़रा रेड
Show Answer
Ans.(b)
Sol. The correct order of the following different categories of radiations are – x-ray > ultraviolet > visible light > infrared. The electromagnetic spectrum of radio waves has the lowest energy while Gama-rays consist of highest energy.


Q7. The energy of sun is released due to- 
सूर्य की ऊर्जा किसके कारण मुक्त की जाती है-
(a) Nuclear Fission/ परमाणु विखंडन
(b) Nuclear Fusion / परमाणु संलयन
(c) Oxidation Reactions / ऑक्सीकरण प्रतिक्रियाएं
(d) Reduction Reactions / न्यूनन प्रतिक्रियाएं
Show Answer
Ans.(b)
Sol. The Sun produces energy by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core. Since there is a huge amount of hydrogen in the core, these atoms stick together and fuse into a helium atom. This energy is then radiated out from the core and moves across the solar system. This is the main source of energy for the sun and stars. Besides that the gravitational contraction in stars is also the source of their energy.

Q8. Stars obtain their energy from: 
सितारे अपनी ऊर्जा किससे प्राप्त करते हैं
1. Nuclear fusion / परमाणु संलयन
2. Gravitational contraction / गुरुत्वाकर्षण संकुचन
3. Chemical reaction / रासायनिक प्रतिक्रिया
4. Nuclear fission / परमाणु विखंडन
Select your answer from the codes given below: 
नीचे दिए गए कोड से अपना उत्तर चुनें
Code/कोड: 
(a) 1 and 2 /
(b) 1, 2 and 3  /
(c) 1 and 4 /
(d) 2 and 4 /
Show Answer
Ans.(a)
Sol. The Sun produces energy by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core. Since there is a huge amount of hydrogen in the core, these atoms stick together and fuse into a helium atom. This energy is then radiated out from the core and moves across the solar system. This is the main source of energy for the sun and stars. Besides that the gravitational contraction in stars is also the source of their energy.

Q9. Who discovered cloud chamber  ? 
क्लाउड चैम्बर की खोज किसने की थी?
(a) Madam curie / मैडम क्यूरी
(b) Rutherford/ रदरफोर्ड
(c) Charles Thomson Rees Wilson/ चार्ल्स थॉमसन रीस विल्सन
(d) Thomson / थॉमसन
Show Answer
Ans.(c)
Sol. Charles Thomson Rees Wilson  a Scottish physicist, is credited with inventing the cloud chamber.


Q10. Which one of the following is the source of renewable energy in stars- 
निम्नलिखित में से क्या सितारों में नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा का स्रोत है
(a) Hydrogen changes into helium / हाइड्रोजन हीलियम में बदल जाता है
(b) Helium changes into hydrogen/ हीलियम हाइड्रोजन में बदल जाता है
(c) Decay of radioactive material / रेडियोधर्मी सामग्री का क्षय
(d) Excess of oxygen which is helpful in burning and generate energy. / ऑक्सीजन की अतिरिक्त जो ऊर्जा को जलाने और उत्पन्न करने में सहायक होती है
Show Answer
Ans.(a)
Sol. The Sun produces energy by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core. Since there is a huge amount of hydrogen in the core, these atoms stick together and fuse into a helium atom. This energy is then radiated out from the core and moves across the solar system. This is the main source of energy for the sun and stars. Besides that the gravitational contraction in stars is also the source of their energy.

Q11. Canal rays are: 
कैनाल किरणें हैं
(a) Positive in nature / प्रकृति में सकारात्मक
(b) Negative in nature/ प्रकृति में नकारात्मक
(c) Neutral in nature/ प्रकृति में तटस्थ
(d)Not specified/
Show Answer
Ans.(a)
Sol. An anode ray (also positive ray or canal ray) is a beam of positive ions that is created by certain types of gas-discharge tubes. They were first observed in Crookes tubes during experiments by the German scientist Eugen Goldstein, in 1886.

Q12. What is the source of electrical energy in an artificial satellite? 
कृत्रिम उपग्रह में विद्युत ऊर्जा का स्रोत क्या है?
(a) Solar cells / सौर कोशिकाएं
(b) Mini nuclear reactor /
(c) Dynamo / डाइनेमो
(d) Thermopile /थर्मापाइल
Show Answer
Ans.(a)
Sol. Solar (or photovoltaic) cells convert the sun’s energy into electrical energy through photoelectric effect. Photoelectric effect is the ability of matter to emit electrons when a light shines upon it.

Q13. Which one of the following element is used in solar cells? 
सौर सेल में निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा तत्व उपयोग किया जाता है?
(a) Silicon / सिलिकॉन
(b) Cerium / सैरियम
(c) Astatine / एस्टाटिन
(d) Vanadium / वैनेडियम
Show Answer
Ans.(a)
Sol. Solar cells are the components of solar arrays that convert radiant light from the sun into electricity that is then used to power electrical devices. Solar cells contain materials with semiconducting properties in which their electrons become excited and turned into an electrical current when struck by sunlight. While there are a dozen of variation of solar cells, the two most common types are those made of crystalline silicon (both monocrystalline and polycrystalline) and those made with what is called thin technology. The majority (90%) of the solar cells on the market today are made silicon.

Q14. Photovoltaic cells are : 
फोटोवोल्टिक सेल क्या हैं
(a) Solar cells / सौर सेल
(b) Thermal cells / थर्मल सेल
(c) Sulphur cells / सल्फर सेल
(d) Molar cells /मोलर सेल
Show Answer
Ans.(a)
Sol. The conversion of light energy into electrical energy is based on the phenomenon called photovoltaic effect. A photovoltaic cell is the basic unit of the system where the photovoltaic effect is utilized to produce electricity from light energy. Silicon is most widely used semiconductor material for constructing photovoltaic cell.


Q15. Where are mesons found: 
मेसन ने किसका आविष्कार किया था:
(a) Cosmic rays/ ब्रह्मांडीय किरणों
(b) X-rays / एक्स-रे
(c) Gamma rays/ गामा किरणें
(d) Laser beam/ लेजर बीम
Show Answer
Ans.(a)
Sol. Mesons appear in nature only as short-lived products of very high-energy collisions between particles made of quarks, such as cosmic rays (high-energy protons and neutrons) and ordinary matter.


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