Biology Questions for Railway & SSC CGL Exam 2018 : 28th May

Human Anatomy:

Dear Students,

Railway Board offers opulent and revered job posts to its aspirants. And it is not every year that we get the notification from Railway offering a good number of vacant seats to the multitude aspirants. But the current year 2018 brought a pleasant surprise with almost 90,000 seats to be filled by the valid candidates. Opportunity is here but you have to welcome it with a provident strategy. The exam will be conducted in the months of May 2018. 

रेलवे बोर्ड अपने उम्मीदवारों के लिए भव्य और प्रतिष्ठित कार्य पदों की पेशकश करता है. और हर साल ऐसा नहीं होता है कि हमें रेलवे की ओर से अधिसूचना मिलती है. लेकिन वर्तमान वर्ष 2018 आपके लिए बहुत सुखद वर्ष है क्योंकि इसमें लगभग 90,000 सीटों को वैध उम्मीदवारों द्वारा भरा जाएगा. आपके पास बहुत अच्छा अवसर है और आपको इसे एक बेहतर रणनीति से प्राप्त करना होगा. परीक्षा मई 2018 के महीने में आयोजित की जायेगी.

Q1. The percentage of water in an adult human body is around- 
एक वयस्क मानव शरीर में पानी का प्रतिशत लगभग कितना होता है.
(a) 10%
(b) 30%
(c) 65%
(d) 75%
Show Answer
Sol. The amount of water in the human body ranges from 50-75%. The average adult human body is 50-60%. The percentage of water in infants is much higher typically around 57-60%. The percentage of water in infants is much higher typically around 75-78% water, dropping to 65% by one year of age. Water is the best solvent in nature.

Q2. The most abundant element found in the human body is- 
मानव शरीर में सबसे प्रचुर मात्रा में पाए जाने वाला तत्व है:
(a) Iron/आयरन
(b) Sodium/सोडियम
(c) Oxygen/ऑक्सीजन
(d) Iodine/आयोडीन
Show Answer
Sol. Nearly 99% of the mass of human body consists of just six chemical elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. Oxygen is the most abundant element in the human body. It is mainly found in the form of water. Water, in turn, makes up about 60% of the human body and participates in countless metabolic reactions.

Q3. Which of the following is the smallest bone in the human body? 
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सी मानव शरीर की सबसे छोटी हड्डी है?
(a) Vomer / वोमर
(b) Stapes / स्टेपीज़
(c) Malleus / मैलीअस
(d) Incus / इनकस
Show Answer
Sol. The stapes is the lightest stirrup-shaped bone and the smallest bone in the human body found in the middle of humans ears. While femur is the largest bone in the human body. It is located in the upper leg which connects the knee at one end and fits into the hip socket at the other.

Q4The number of bones in human skull is- 
मानव खोपड़ी  की हड्डियों की संख्या कितनी है?
(a) 22
(b) 30
(c) 32
(d) 40
Show Answer
Sol. The human skull is generally considered to consist of 29 bones,( 8 bones jointly protects the brain, 14 bones forms the face, 6 ear ossicles and 1 hyoid bone.)

Q5. Which one of the following salts is found in maximum amount in the human bones? 
निम्न में से कौन सा एक साल्ट मानव हड्डियों में अधिक मात्रा में पाया जाता है?
(a) Magnesium Chloride / मैगनिशियम क्लोराइड
(b) Calcium Carbonate / कैल्शियम कार्बोनेट
(c) Calcium Phosphate / कैल्शियम फॉस्फेट
(d) Sodium Chloride / सोडियम क्लोराइड
Show Answer
Sol. Calcium phosphate is the principal from of calcium found in bovine milk and blood. 70% of bone consists of hydroxyapatite, a calcium phosphate mineral (known as bone mineral). Up to 50% by volume and 70% by weight of human bone is a modified form of hydroxylapatite.

Q6. How many pairs of ribs are there in a human body? 
मानव शरीर में पसलियों के कितने जोड़े हैं?
(a) 12
(b) 10
(c) 14
(d) 11
Show Answer
Sol. The human rib cage is made up of 12 paired (total 24 rib bone) rib bones. Each are symmetrically paired in right and left side. The ribs are flat, thin bones that together with the sternum make up the ribcage. The ribs provide protection for vital organs in the upper body, including the heart and lungs.

Q7. A healthy human being excretes the following litres of urine in 24 hours- 
एक स्वस्थ मनुष्य 24 घंटे में कितना लीटर मूत्र उत्सर्जित करता है-
(a) 1.5
(b) 3.0
(c) 6.0
(d) 9.0
Show Answer
Sol. Excretion of average urine in the adult human body is around 1.5 liters of urine per day. About 91-96% of urine consist of water.

Q8. The bones are held together by elastic tissues are called- 
हड्डियों को जिस लचीले ऊतकों द्वारा एक साथ रखा जाता है, वह क्या कहलाते है-
(a) Ligaments / अस्थि-बंधन
(b) Fibrous tissues / रेशेदार ऊतक
(c) Fibrin / फाइब्रिन
(d) Muscular tissues/ पेशी ऊतक
Show Answer
Sol. A ligament is a tissue that connects two bones to form a joint. It is tough and fibrous which means that when it is formed, a ligament can take quite to heal and might even require surgery.

Q9. Plaques formed on teeth are made up of- 
दाँतों पर बने प्लैक्स किससे बनती हैं - 
(a) Food particles only / केवल खाद्य कण
(b) Food particles plus saliva / खाद्य कणों और लार
(c) Food particles plus saliva plus mouth acids / खाद्य कणों और लार और मुंह के अम्ल
(d) Food particles plus saliva plus mouth acids plus bacteria / खाद्य कण और लार और मुंह के अम्ल और बैक्टीरिया
Show Answer
Sol. Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white/pale yellow “smile layer” commonly found in between the teeth and along the cervical margins. Plaques formed on teeth are made up of food particles, saliva, mouth acids and bacteria in the oral cavity. Saliva has a normal Ph range of 6.2-7.6 with 6.7 being the average pH.

Q10. Which of the following are required for the formation of bones and teeth? 
हड्डियों और दांतों के निर्माण के लिए निम्नलिखित में से क्या आवश्यक है
(a) Sodium and Potassium / सोडियम और पोटैशियम
(b) Iron and Calcium / आयरन और कैल्शियम
(c) Sodium and Calcium / सोडियम और कैल्शियम
(d) Calcium and Phosphorus / कैल्शियम और फोस्फोरस
Show Answer
Sol. Teeth and bones both are hard, white and heavy. Teeth are composed of calcium, phosphorous and other minerals. Bones contain calcium, phosphorus, sodium and other minerals, but mostly consist of the protein collagen.

Q11. The brain is responsible for: 
मस्तिष्क किसके लिए उत्तरदायी होता है ?
(a) Thinking / चिंतन
(b) Regulating the hearteat / दिल की धड़कन को विनियमित करना
(c) Balancing the body / शरीर को संतुलित करना
(d) All of the above three / उपर्युक्त तीनों में से सभी
Show Answer
Sol. The brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and it performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing as well as speech, reasoning, learning and fine control of movement. The function of the cerebellum is to coordinate muscle movements, maintain posture and balance. The brainstem performs many automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, body temperature, woke and sleep cycles, digestion, etc. Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.

Q12. Where is the governing centre of reflex action located? 
प्रतिक्षेप क्रिया का नियंत्रण क्षेत्र कहाँ स्थित होता है?
(a) In cerebrum / मस्तिष्क के ऊपरी भाग में
(b) In cerebellum / अनुमस्तिष्क में
(c) In spinal cord / रीढ़ की हड्डी में
(d) In nerve cells / तंत्रिका कोशिकाओं में
Show Answer
Sol. A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls an action reflex. In higher animals, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord. This characteristic allows reflex actions to occur relatively quickly by activating spinal motor neurons without the delay of routing signals through the brain, although the brain will receive sensory input while the reflex action occurs. There are two types of reflex arc: autonomic reflex arc (affecting inner organs) and somatic reflex arc (affecting muscles).

Q13. In human brain memory power is found in 
मानव मस्तिष्क में स्मृति शक्ति कहाँ पायी जाती है-
(a) Medulla oblongata / मेरु-मज्जा
(b) Cerebrum / प्रमस्तिष्क
(c) Brain cavity / मस्तिष्क गुहा
(d) Cerebellum / अनुमस्तिष्क पिंड
Show Answer
Sol. The three main parts of the brain are the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem. The cerebrum is the biggest part of the brain and it is the part that controls movement, thinking, feeling and general problem-solving abilities. The cerebellum is smaller than the cerebrum. This part of the brain sits at the back of your skull, underneath the cerebrum. The cerebellum is responsible for controlling co-ordination and balance. The hippocampus is the part of the cerebrum that deals with memory.

Q14. Saliva help in the digestion of ? 
लार ______के पाचन में मदद करता है.
(a) Protein / प्रोटीन
(b) Fat / वसा
(c) Vitamin / विटामिन
(d) Starch / स्टार्च
Show Answer
Sol. Saliva contains the enzyme amylase that breaks some starches down into maltose and dextrin.

Q15. Which one of the following is a membrane that protects the developing embryo from desiccation?  
निम्नलिखित में से एक वह कौन सी झिल्ली है जो गर्भ में विकासशील भ्रूण को शुष्क होने से बचाती है?
(a) Amnion / भ्रूणावरण
(b) Allantois / संवहनी भ्रूण झिल्ली
(c) Chorion / गर्भ की बाहरी झिल्ली
(d) Yolk sac / अंडपीतकोश
Show Answer
Sol. The amnion is a membrane that covers the embryo. It is filled with the amniotic fluid which causes the amnion to expand and become the amniotic sac which serves to provide a protective environment for the developing embryo.

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