Classifications of Economy:-
In Indian economy introduction, the sectors of economy based on other basis is also required to get a clear picture of the strengths of Indian Economy.
1.Organized Sector: The sector which carries out all activity through a system and follows the law of the land is called organized sector. Moreover, labour rights are given due respect and wages are as per the norms of the country and those of the industry. Labour working organized sector get the benefit of social security net as framed by the Government. Certain benefits like provident fund, leave entitlement, medical benefits and insurance are provided to workers in the organized sector. These security provisions are necessary to provide source of sustenance in case of disability or death of the main breadwinner of the family without which the dependent will face a bleak future.
2.Unorganized Sector: The sectors which evade most of the laws and don’t follow the system come under unorganized sector. Small shopkeepers, some small scale manufacturing units keep all their attention on profit making and ignore their workers basic rights. Workers don’t get adequate salary and other benefits like leave, health benefits and insurance are beyond the imagination of people working in unorganized sectors.
3.Public Sector: Companies which are run and financed by the Government comprises the public sector.After independence India was a very poor country. India needed huge amount of money to set up manufacturing plants for basic items like iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizers and cements. Additional infrastructure like roads, railways, ports and airports also require huge investment. In those days Indian entrepreneur was not cash rich so government had to start creating big public sector enterprises like SAIL(Steel Authority of India Limited), ONGC (Oil & Natural Gas Commission).
4.Private Sector: Companies which are run and financed by private people comprise the private sector.Companies like Hero Honda, Tata are from private sectors.
Sectors of Economy : Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary and QuinaryPrimary activities
Primary activities are directly dependent on environment as these refer to utilisation of earth’s resources such as land, water, vegetation, building materials and minerals. It, thus includes, hunting and gathering, pastoral activities, fishing, forestry, agriculture, and mining and quarrying.
People engaged in primary activities are called red-collar workers due to the outdoor nature of their work.
Secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials into valuable products. Secondary activities, therefore, are concerned with manufacturing, processing and construction (infrastructure) industries.
People engaged in secondary activities are called blue collar workers.
Tertiary activities include both production and exchange. The production involves the ‘provision’ of services that are ‘consumed. Exchange, involves trade, transport and communication facilities that are used to overcome distance.
Tertiary jobs = White collar jobs.
Quaternary activities are specialized tertairy activities in the ‘Knowledge Sector’ which demands a separate classification. There has been a very high growth in demand for and consumption of information based services from mutual fund managers to tax consultants, software developers and statisticians. Personnel working in office buildings, elementary schools and university classrooms, hospitals and doctors’ offices, theatres, accounting and brokerage firms all belong to this category of services. Like some of the tertiary functions, quaternary activities can also be outsourced. They are not tied to resources, affected by the environment, or necessarily localised by market.
Quinary activities are services that focus on the creation, re-arrangement and interpretation of new and existing ideas; data interpretation and the use and evaluation of new technologies. Often referred to as ‘gold collar’ professions, they represent another subdivision of the tertiary sector representing special and highly paid skills of senior business executives, government officials, research scientists, financial and legal consultants, etc. Their importance in the structure of advanced economies far outweighs their numbers.The highest level of decision makers or policy makers perform quinary activities.
Quinary = Gold collar professions.